General Medicine Department, Yaroslavl State Medical Academy, Russia
Received date: May 10, 2016; Accepted date: June 02, 2016; Published date: June 10, 2016
Citation: Bayramova AN (2016) Gastroenterological Diseases as a Complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. J Gastrointest Dig Syst 6:442. doi:10.4172/2161-069X.1000442
Copyright: © 2016 Bayramova AN. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License; which permits unrestricted use; distribution; and reproduction in any medium; provided the original author and source are credited.
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One of the most common pathologies in the world nowadays can be called type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM), the incidence of which according to the WHO is 347 million people, 91% of which are patients with diabetes of type II. Quite a big number of persons suffering from diabetes complain about the state of the digestive system (75%), which indicates the need for a detailed study of the problem.
Diabetes Mellitus; Gastroenterological diseases
One of the most common pathologies in the world nowadays can be called type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), the incidence of which according to the WHO is 347 million people, 91% of which are patients with diabetes of type II.
Since diabetes is a complex pathogenesis polivisceropathy accompanied by violation of all kinds of metabolism, there is a defeat of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the base of which, according to most researchers, is diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Quite a big number of persons suffering from diabetes complain about the state of the digestive system (75%), which indicates the need for a detailed study of the problem.
Goal is to determine the relationship between the occurrence of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and type 2 diabetes mellitus, its behavior and duration as it’s so many people who have diabetes but nowadays it's difficult to find such a research explaining connection between them.
The study was conducted on the basis of City Hospital No 8 of Yaroslavl. We used the information-analytical (literature study), a statistical method (determination of the percentage of various gastrointestinal pathologies in individuals with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and compared with published data including women and man with the age from 52 till 85 excluding children any age) and the method of the survey.
The study design is cross-sectional survey. Statistical data processing was done by using STATISTICA software program version 10.0 for Windows. Study limitation is 24 patients with such diseases.
In our study 24 patients (20 women and 4 men) were interviewed aged 52-85 years, social status – retired people. According to the survey following three groups based on the duration of diabetes were identified: 1-diabetes story of more than 10 years (15 persons), 2nd diabetes story is from 5 to 10 years (7 persons) and diabetes history which duration is less than 5 years (2 people).
In 79% of patients (19 men) with diabetes revealed various symptoms of gastrointestinal lesions. Of these, 73% (14 persons) associated with the appearance of these symptoms with the development of diabetes, most of them -52% (10 people) are persons with along diabetes duration-more than 10 years.
Gastrointestinal pathology symptoms associated with diabetes development in the group of patients suffering from diabetes for less than 5 years were not observed. All patients link complaints with diabetes (14 people); complain of constipation, which may be associated with diabetic autonomic neuropathy, which causes a decrease in intestinal motility and gastro-colonic reflex relaxing and reducing capacity.
In 64% of cases aching abdominal pain observed (9 persons, 6 suffer for more than 10 years), the severity of epigastric 78% noted (11 persons, 8 suffer for more than 10 years).
These symptoms are due to reduced innervation of the gastric function in the presence of hyperglycemia. Most likely they are associated with gastroparesis, whereby emptying of food from the stomach is delayed, leading to stagnation of gastric contents. This can cause bloating, early satiety, abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting. Gastroparesis can lead to a deterioration of gastroesophageal reflux with heartburn symptoms and mechanical regurgitation of gastric contents.
Heartburn occurs in 42% (6 people, 4 suffer from diabetes for more than 10 years). In patients receiving insulin, complaints of gastrointestinal pathology observed in 60% (9 people), all surveyed patients taking medicine (5 people), and not receiving replacement therapy (4 people) complained about the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract noted.
Thus, the study suggests that complications of diabetes can affect the entire digestive system, and the frequency and severity of symptoms of lesions of the gastrointestinal tract in patients with diabetes of the second type depends on the duration of diabetes and glycemic control level. The longer the patient diagnosed with diabetes more damage it make the patient digestive system.