Dersleri yüzünden oldukça stresli bir ruh haline sikiş hikayeleri bürünüp özel matematik dersinden önce rahatlayabilmek için amatör pornolar kendisini yatak odasına kapatan genç adam telefonundan porno resimleri açtığı porno filmini keyifle seyir ederek yatağını mobil porno okşar ruh dinlendirici olduğunu iddia ettikleri özel sex resim bir masaj salonunda çalışan genç masör hem sağlık hem de huzur sikiş için gelip masaj yaptıracak olan kadını gördüğünde porn nutku tutulur tüm gün boyu seksi lezbiyenleri sikiş dikizleyerek onları en savunmasız anlarında fotoğraflayan azılı erkek lavaboya geçerek fotoğraflara bakıp koca yarağını keyifle okşamaya başlar
Impact of Zinc on Immune Response

Immunology: Current Research
Open Access

Our Group organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)
  • Short Communication   
  • Immunol Curr Res, Vol 2(1)

Impact of Zinc on Immune Response

Sabina Khanam*
Department of Biological Sciences, Yobe State University, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Sabina Khanam, Department of Biological Sciences, Yobe State University, Nigeria, Tel: +234706336 6173, Email: [email protected]

Received: 05-Jul-2018 / Accepted Date: 16-Aug-2018 / Published Date: 23-Aug-2018

Keywords: Zinc; Immunity; Deficiency; Physiology; Response


Zinc is one of the most important trace elements on earth’s crust which is essential for various cellular and catalytic activities of various enzymes of the body for humans, plants and animals. Zinc is obtained from various foods such as dairy products, poultry, eggs, legumes, nuts, red meat, oysters, seafood, and cereals. It also plays very important role in gene expression, protein synthesis, cell development, nucleic acid synthesis, cell division, replication, growth and development during pregnancy and from childhood to adolescence and in immune function [1-6]. Zinc also known as immune booster by increasing the body immunity because it functions as antioxidant. It decreases oxidative stress markers and generation of inflammatory cytokines. It also helps in several physiological processes such as digestion and regulation of hormone production in the endocrine glands.

Zinc and Immune System

Many biological structures such as proteins, tissues and organs protect against diseases comprising immune system. Immune system is of two types: Innate immune system and Acquired immune system.

Innate immune system: It is a non-specific defence mechanism that acts immediately when an antigen ap pears in the body.

Acquired immune system: Also known as adaptive immunity and it is an antigen-specific immunity.

The most important cell in our body which protect from diseases is white blood cells (WBC) or Leukocytes which destroy disease causing substances. Zinc deficiency may cause impaired immune function which causes several types if infections in body such as gastrointestinal, respiratory, inflammatory diseases, autoimmune disease and pneumonia. All these infections develop in the body because level of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-2, IL-1β) decreases in the blood due to zinc deficiency [7-9]. Zinc is essential element for normal functioning of cells such as neutrophils and natural killer cells. Zinc deficiency also affects the normal development of acquired immunity which is prevented by T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes in our body by the activation of Th 1 cytokine production.


The purpose of this review is to study the relationship between zinc and immunity. Zinc functions as a signalling molecule which targets on specific molecule. Zinc deficiency in the body alters the normal functioning of immune system by altering the signalling pathways which leads to various immunological disorders by affecting the T-cells and B-cells.


  1. Shah D, Sachdev HP (2001) Effect of gestational zinc deficiency on pregnancy outcomes: summary of observation studies and zinc supplementation trials. Br J Nutr 85: S101-108.
  2. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board (2001) Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press 442-501.
  3. Prasad AS, Beck FW, Grabovski SM, Kaplan J, Mathog RH (1997) Zinc deficiency: changes in cytokine production and T-cell subpopulations in patients with head and neck cancer and in non-cancer subjects. Proc Assoc Am Physicians 109: 68-77.
  4. Sandstead HH (1994) Understanding zinc: recent observations and interpretations. J Lab Clin Med 124: 322-327.
  5. Simmer K, Thompson RP (1985) Zinc in the foetus and newborn. Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl 319: 158-63.
  6. Kumar P, Clark ML (2012) Kumar and Clark Clinical Medicine (8th edn), Edinburg: Elsevier/Saunders.
  7. Lassi ZS, Haider BA, Bhutta ZA (2010) Zinc supplementation for the prevention of pneumonia in children aged 2 months to 59 months. Cochrane database syst rev 12: CD005978.
  8. Foster M, Samman S (2012) Zinc and regulation of inflammatory cytokines: implications for cardiometabolic disease. Nutrients 4: 676-694.

Citation: Khanam S (2018) Impact of Zinc on Immune Response. Immunol Curr Res 2: 103.

Copyright: © 2018 Khanam S. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language

Post Your Comment Citation
Share This Article
Recommended Conferences
Article Usage
  • Total views: 2239
  • [From(publication date): 0-2018 - Feb 04, 2023]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views: 1689
  • PDF downloads: 550