alexa

GET THE APP

Influence of Synchronization Techniques and Dates of Sowing on Nicking in Parental Lines of Pearl Millet Hybrid BPMH-3 Seed Production
ISSN: 2329-8863

Advances in Crop Science and Technology
Open Access

Our Group organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Influence of Synchronization Techniques and Dates of Sowing on Nicking in Parental Lines of Pearl Millet Hybrid BPMH-3 Seed Production

Priyanka M*, Gurumurthy R and Deshpande VK
Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India
*Corresponding Author: Priyanka M, Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, Tel: +91-80-23330153, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Oct 26, 2017 / Accepted Date: Nov 18, 2017 / Published Date: Nov 24, 2017

Abstract

The field experiment was carried out during Kharif 2016 at the Main Agricultural Research Station, to investigate the effect of staggered sowings and application of additional dose of nitrogen to late parent on synchronization of male and female parents of pearl millet hybrid BPMH-3. The field experiment comprised of twelve treatments with three replications in split plot design. The results revealed that staggered sowing of male parent nine days earlier than female (S4) took less number of days for panicle initiation, flower initiation and 50 per cent flowering in male. On the other hand simultaneous sowing of female and male parent (S1) recorded the lowest values for growth parameters and it took more number of days to panicle initiation, flower initiation and 50 per cent flowering. This revealed that sowing of male parent nine days earlier than the female parent and application of additional 10 kg N ha-1 to male parent at 35 days after sowing (S4) was appropriate to achieve nicking between female and male parental lines of pearl millet hybrid, BPMH-3. Another experiment was conducted at Saidapur farm, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, to study the flowering behaviour of TPRT 111 (male) and ICMA 9277 (female) parents of pearl millet BPMH-3 in periodical date of sowing with fifteen days interval from first June, 2016 to Second fortnight of December, 2016. The results revealed that the female (ICMA 9277) and male (TPRT 111) parental lines took significantly more number of days 52.00 days and 64.00 days respectively when sown during first fortnight of June 2016. While, less number of days was recorded by female and male parental lines (46.00 days and 51.00 days respectively) when sown during second fortnight of December 2016. Progressive decline in days to fifty percent flowering was observed with the advancement in the sowing which narrow down the flowering gap between male and female parental line.

Keywords: Synchronization; Dates of sowing; Flowering

Introduction

Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum ) in India is known by several names in different languages, commonly called as bajra, cumbu, sajje etc and it is also called as cattle millet, bulrush millet or candle millet. It belongs to family gramineae (poaceae). Pearl millet seed contains 11.8 g proteins, 4.8 g fat, 2.3 g fiber, 67 g carbohydrate and minerals like calcium (16 mg), iron (6 mg), magnesium (228 mg), phosphorous (570 mg), sodium (10 mg), zinc (3.4 mg), potassium (390 mg), copper (1.5 mg) and manganese (33 mg).

Area under pearl millet cultivation in Karnataka is 0.29 mha, production of 0.31 m tons and productivity of 1080 kgs/ha [1]. Mainly pearl millet is grown on marginal lands under harsh condition with limited use of chemicals and fertilizers. Besides this, the quality seed of improved genotypes is another major constraint to enhance production, productivity, seed replacement rate and also loss of crop due to downy mildew disease. Though the yielding potential of pearl millet is good, there is a wide gap exists between potential yield and natural yield. Hence with the establishment of AICRIP in pearl millet in 1961 by ICAR, New Delhi, the exploitation of heterosis was initiated, as a result of this first hybrid of pearl millet (HB-1) was released by AICRIP in 1965.

Among the production factors, major barrier in hybrid seed production is to achieve proper nicking between female and male parental lines and the non-uniformity in flowering period of male and female parent results in poor seed set mainly due to nonavailability of pollen at the time of stigma receptivity in female parent due to the protogyny. To achieve proper synchronization of flowering of male and female parents during hybrid seed production, the methods like staggered planting, chemical methods and cultural practices such as application of additional dose of nitrogen through soil, spraying of urea, gibberellic acid, ABA, hydro priming and controlled irrigation are followed.

The pearl millet hybrid BPMH-3 is a cross between ICMA 9277 × TPRT 111. The female parent (ICMA 9277) flowers earlier than male parent (TPRT 111). The period of staggered sowings in hybrid seed production of pearl millet can be reduced amicably by application of additional dose of nitrogen to late parent so that the late flowering parent meet synchrony and facilitate the simultaneous flowering which otherwise difficult under a longer period of staggered sowing. In the past, several methods have been adopted to overcome the problem of non-synchronization of flowering. When the difference in flowering between parental lines is more than the marginal, the only alternative is staggered planting which is not in practice in pearl millet hybrid. In staggered planting, the planting dates of parental lines of hybrid is adjusted to make them to flower at the same time but the success mainly depends on the information about the flowering behaviour of both the parents across the locations during different seasons, as inter planting of parental lines in definite row ratios is involved in pearl millet hybrid seed production. Since pearl millet is nitro positive crop, increase in the doses of nitrogen application has been practiced to hasten the flowering which also enables the parental lines to bridge the marginal gap in the flowering period. The flowering behaviour could also be manipulated by the use of different chemicals like gibberellic acid, foliar spray of nitrogen, phosphorus and presowing hydration, which hasten the flowering. Hence, in the present investigation efforts were made to achieve synchrony between parental flowering where flowering of male parent is 11 days later compared to the female parent.

Flowering behaviour in parental lines of pearl millet hybrid BPMH-3 revealed that, with the advancement in date of sowing at fortnightly interval from first fortnight of June, 2016 to second fortnight of December 2016, was observed decreasing trend in days to fifty per cent flowering in female (ICMA 9277) and male parent (TPRT 111).

Materials and Methods

The field experiment was conducted during Kharif 2016 at Main Agricultural Research Station (MARS), UAS Dharwad, which is situated at 15°12' N latitude and 76°34'E longitude with an altitude of 678 m above mean sea level. The experimental site consisted of medium deep black soil. The field experiment was laid out in a split plot design with two factors, Factor - I: Staggered sowing (S), Factor II: application of additional dose of nitrogen to male parent (N). Main factor consisting of sowing of male line at different dates i.e., S1: Simultaneous sowing of both the parents, S2: Staggered sowing of late parent (male) 3 days earlier to female, S3: Staggered sowing of late parent (male) six days earlier to female and S4: Staggered sowing of late parent (male) nine days earlier to female. While, sub plots of application of additional dose of nitrogen to male parent consisted of N0: Recommended dose of fertilizer (100:60:25NPK, kg/ha), N1: Additional 10 kg/ha N application 30 days after sowing and N2: Additional 10 kg/ha N application 35 days after sowing.

The Another field experiment was carried out at Saidapur farm, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, to study the flowering behaviour of TPRT 111 (male) and ICMA 9277 (female) parents of pearl millet BPMH-3. The field experiment was laid out under Randomized Block Design (RBD) with two replications and fourteen treatments of periodical date of sowing with fifteen days interval from first June, 2016 (T1) to Second fortnight of December, 2016 (T14).

The observations on days to panicle initiation, flower initiation and 50 per cent flowering were recorded at respective stages.

Results and Discussion

The experimental results indicated that, delay in days to panicle initiation, flower initiation and fifty per cent flowering in S4N2 treatment combination (Tables 1 and 2). Among the staggered sowings, S4 recorded less number of days for panicle initiation, flower initiation and 50% flowering. Significant differences were observed for days to panicle initiation, flower initiation and 50% flowering due to staggered sowings irrespective of application of additional dose of nitrogen. However, the sowing of male parent 9 days before female parent (S4) took relatively shorter period (56.33 days) for panicle initiation, 61.46 days for flower initiation and 66.33 days for fifty per cent flowering as compared to sowing of female and male parent on same day (S1:57.44 days) for panicle initiation, 62.67 days for flower initiation and 67.64 days for fifty per cent flowering and reduced the difference in fifty per cent flowering between female and male parent from 10.55 to 0.89 days. The results indicated significant effect on flowering parameters due to staggered sowings. These findings are also in conformity with the results of Biradar and Shivappa [2,3] in sorghum hybrid seed production, Tanwir Alam et al. [4] in maize hybrid and Dhedhi et al. [5] in Bajra.

Treatments Days to panicle initiation (days) Days to flower initiation (days)
Main plot : Staggered sowings (S) Female parent (Seed parent) Male parent (Restorer line) Female parent (Seed parent) Male parent (Restorer line)
S1: Simultaneous sowing of both the parents 48.01 57.44 51.44 62.67
S2: Staggered sowing of late parent (male) three days earlier to female 47.86 57.22 51.37 62.28
S3: Staggered sowing of late parent (male) six days earlier to female 48.08 57.33 51.42 62
S4: Staggered sowing of late parent (male) nine days earlier to female 46.97 56.33 51.17 61.46
Mean 47.73 57.2 51.36 62.1
S.Em. ± 0.27 0.14 0.46 0.15
C.D. (P = 0.05) NS 0.42 NS 0.46
Sub plot: Application of additional doses of nitrogen to late parent  (N)        
N0: Recommended dose of fertilizer (100:60:25 kg ha-1) only 47.88 58.08 51.27 62.8
N1: Application of additional  N @ 10 kg ha-1 at 30 DAS 47.66 57.25 51.39 62.25
N2: Application of additional  N @ 10 kg ha-1 at 35 DAS 47.67 55.92 51.4 61.25
Mean 47.73 57.2 51.36 62.1
S.Em. ± 0.35 0.16 0.56 0.14
C.D. (P = 0.05) NS 0.5 NS 0.44
Interactions (SXN)    
S1N0 47.83 58.4 51.33 63.17
S1N1 48.07 57.73 51.33 63
S1N2 48.13 56.4 51.67 61.83
S2N0 47.67 58.06 51 63
S2N1 47.83 57.76 51.45 62.67
S2N2 48.09 56.1 51.67 61.17
S3N0 48.09 58.46 51.33 63
S3N1 47.73 57.5 51.67 62
S3N2 48.43 56.43 51.25 61
S4N0 47.92 57.8 51.4 62.03
S4N1 47 56.4 51.11 61.33
S4N2 46 55.33 51 61
Mean 47.73 57.2 51.36 62.1
S.Em. ± 0.59 0.47 0.2 0.41
C.D. (P = 0.05) NS 1.44 NS 1.24

Table 1: Days to panicle initiation and flower initiation in female parent and male parent as influenced by staggered sowing and application of additional dose of nitrogen to late parent (restorer line). NS: Non-significant.

Treatments Days to 50  flowering (days)
Main plot : Staggered sowings (S) Female parent (Seed parent) Male parent (Restorer line) Difference (days)
S1: Simultaneous sowing of both the parents 56.89 67.44 10.55
S2: Staggered sowing of late parent (male) three days earlier to female 56.44 67.22 (-3) 7.78
S3: Staggered sowing of late parent (male) six days earlier to female 57 67.33 (-6) 4.33
S4: Staggered sowing of late parent (male) nine days earlier to female 56.44 66.33 (-9) 0.89
Mean 56.69 67.08 -
S.Em. ± 0.63 0.14  
C.D. (P = 0.05) NS 0.42  
Sub plot: Application of additional doses of nitrogen to late parent  (N)      
N0: Recommended dose of fertilizer (100:60:25 kg ha-1) only 57.17 68.08 10.91
N1: Application of additional  N @ 10 kg ha-1 at 30 DAS 56.83 67.25 10.42(-0.42)
N2: Application of additional  N @ 10 kg ha-1 at 35 DAS 56.08 65.92 9.84(-1.07)
Mean 56.69 67.08 -
S.Em. ± 1.39 0.16  
C.D. (P = 0.05) NS 0.5  
Interactions (SXN)      
S1N0 57.33 68.33(-0) 11
S1N1 57 67.67(-0.49) 10.18
S1N2 56.33 66.33(-1.07) 8.93
S2N0 57 68.00 (-3) 8
S2N1 56.33 67.33 (-3.49) 7.51
S2N2 56 66.00 (-4.07) 5.93
S3N0 57.33 68.33 (-6) 5
S3N1 57.33 67.33 (-6.49) 3.51
S3N2 56.33 66.33 (-7.07) 2.93
S4N0 57 67.67 (-9) 1.67
S4N1 56.67 66.33 (-9.49) 0.17
S4N2 55.67 65.00 (-10.07) -0.74
Mean 56.69 67.08 -
S.Em. ± 0.18 0.48  
C.D. (P = 0.05) NS 1.47  

Table 2: Days to 50 per cent flowering in Female parent (ICMA 9277) and male parent (TPRT 111) as influenced by staggered sowing and application of additional dose of nitrogen to late parent (restorer line). NS: Non-significant.

Irrespective of staggered sowings, application of additional dose of nitrogen revealed significant variation on flowering parameters. However, number of days taken to panicle initiation, flower initiation and 50% flowering was relatively less (55.92 days, 61.25 days and 65.92 days respectively) at 10 kg N at 35 DAS. This may be due to increase in plant height and more number of leaves leading to faster growth of reproductive structures. Further, it was also related to greater availability and translocation of photosynthates at the metabolizing zone and it hastened flowering behaviour of the plants due to additional application of nitrogen levels at 35DAS. Similar findings were also reported by Pandusastry [6] in CSH-5 and Shivappa [3] in DSH-1 sorghum hybrid, Dhedhi et al. [5] in bajra, Tanwir Alam et al. [4] in maize.

The interaction effect between staggered sowings and application of additional dose of nitrogen (S × N) showed significant variation for days to panicle initiation, flower initiation and 50 per cent flowering. However, the treatment combination of sowing of male parent 9 days before female sowing along with application of 10 kg/ha additional nitrogen to late parent took relatively less number of days panicle initiation, flower initiation and 50 per cent flowering (55.33 days, 61.00 days and 65.00 days respectively) as compared to the simultaneous sowing of male and female parents and application of recommended dose of fertilizer (S1N0) took 58.40, 63.10 days and 68.33 days for panicle initiation, flower initiation and 50 per cent flowering respectively.

Closer synchronization of flowering between parents (ICMA 9277 × TPRT 111) of hybrid pearl millet BPMH-3 could be obtained by sowing of male parent by 9 days earlier to female along with application of additional dose of nitrogen to late parent at 35DAS (Figure 1). Further, this treatment resulted in better yield components, higher seed yield and better seed quality traits. These findings are in agreement with those of earlier researchers in sorghum hybrid seed production [3]. Further, smaller differences in flowering between female and male parent resulted in good synchronization of flowering between parents on account of more availability of viable pollens. Hence, this resulted in the higher seed setting (78.10%) and increased hybrid seed yield components as evident from the results of this study. Similar positive results of plant nutrients on hybrid seed yield components was also reported by Joshi and Patil [7,8] in sorghum; Dhedhi et al. and Bhanuje [5,9] in bajra and Varshney et al. and Tanwir et al. [4,10] in maize.

advances-crop-science-technology-Female-parent

Figure 1: Days to 50% flowering in Female parent (ICMA 9277) and male parent (TPRT 111) as influenced by staggeredsowing and application of additional of nitrogen.

Among the different dates of sowing, the female (ICMA 9277) and male (TPRT 111) parental lines took significantly more number of days 52.00 days and 64.00 days respectively when sown during first fortnight of June 2016. While, less number of days was recorded by female and male parental lines (46.00 days and 51.00 days respectively) when sown during second fortnight of December 2016 indicated in Table 3 and depicted in Figure 2. Progressive decline in days to fifty percent flowering was observed with the advancement in the sowing.

Treatments Days to fifty per cent flowering
A-line R-line Difference (days)
T1: First fortnight of June, 2016 52 64 12
T2: Second fortnight of June, 2016 51 62.5 11.5
T3: First fortnight of July, 2016 50.5 62 11.5
T4: Second fortnight of July, 2016 50 61 11
T5: First fortnight of August, 2016 49.5 60 10.5
T6: Second fortnight of August, 2016 48.5 58.5 10
T7: First fortnight of September, 2016 49.5 59 9.5
T8: Second fortnight of September, 2016 48 57 9
T9: First fortnight of October, 2016 48 56.5 8.5
T10: Second fortnight of October, 2016 47.5 55 7.5
T11: First fortnight of November, 2016 47 54 7
T12: Second fortnight of November, 2016 46.5 53 6.5
T13: First fortnight of December, 2016 46.5 52 5.5
T14: Second fortnight of December, 2016 46 51 5
Mean 48.6 57.53 -
S.Em. ± 1.93 2.93 -
C.D. (P=0.05) 5.92 8.95 -

Table 3: Influence of date of sowing on days to fifty per cent flowering in A-line (ICMA 9277) and R-line (TPRT 111).

advances-crop-science-technology-fifty-percent

Figure 2: Influence of date of sowing on days to fifty percent flowering in A-line (ICMA 9277) and R-line (TPRT 11).

In the sowings, taken during the month of June, July, August and September months delayed the flowering due to rainy days, nonavailability of better sun shine hours and due to prevailing photo period nature, as flowering requires particular day length and temperature and also pearl millet is photosensitive and short day plant Short day length induces early flowering. During the month of December, the day length is short this period favours early flowering. This was true with both the parents. The present results are in conformity with the findings of Quinby and Shertz [11] in sorghum hybrid seed production. The early flowering in December second sowing might be due to low temperature and good sunshine hours during that period [12,13].

From the above data it can be concluded that at all the dates of sowing, both the male and female parents found to be nonsynchronous in their flowering behaviour. Hence, none of the dates of sowing found suitable for synchronous flowering of male and female parental lines of pearl millet hybrid BPMH-3 seed production at Dharwad location.

References

Citation: Priyanka M, Gurumurthy R, Deshpande VK (2017) Influence of Synchronization Techniques and Dates of Sowing on Nicking in Parental Lines of Pearl Millet Hybrid BPMH-3 Seed Production. Adv Crop Sci Tech 5: 319. DOI: 10.4172/2329-8863.1000319

Copyright: © 2017 Priyanka M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricteduse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language

Post Your Comment Citation
Share This Article
Recommended Conferences

World Conference on Agro-Ecology and Crop Science

Manila, Philippines
Article Usage
  • Total views: 3462
  • [From(publication date): 0-2017 - Sep 24, 2021]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views: 3187
  • PDF downloads: 275
Top