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ISSN: 2169-0170
Journal of Civil & Legal Sciences
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Minimizing Death of Children (Under the Age of Seven) Due to Lack of Sanitation Lachi District, Mekelle City

Fitsum Abrha*

Aksum University, Ethopia

*Corresponding Author:
Fitsum Abrha
Department of Political Science and International Relations
Aksum University, Ethopia
Tel: +251 347 753 645
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: March 15, 2016 Accepted Date: December 02, 2016 Published Date: December 09, 2016

Citation: Abrha F (2016) Minimizing Death of Children (Under the Age of Seven) Due to Lack of Sanitation Lachi District, Mekelle City. J Civil Legal Sci 6: 224. doi: 10.4172/2169-0170.1000224

Copyright: © 2016 Abrha F. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

According to (USAID) Ethiopia’s 81 million people have one of Africa’s lowest rates of access to water supply, sanitation, and hygiene despite abundant surface and groundwater resources. Ethiopia is also among the sub Saharan countries in which peoples in general and children in particular are dying due to lack of basic necessities. More specifically Lachi district which is founded in the Tigray regional state is also among the areas where in peoples particularly children dying because of lack of sanitation and hygiene. In the district many people are being adversely affected by the diseases caused due to lack of sanitation. This problem of sanitation is becoming a major reason for the death of peoples though the prominent victims of the problem are children whose age is less than seven. In addition to this it is also becoming the reason for the drop out of and hindrance of the achievement of the children.

Keywords

Sanitation; Mekelle city; Children

Introduction

Background

Based on figures from the Central Statistical Agency in 2010, Mekelle has an estimated total population of 210,247. The city has an estimated area of 24.44 square kilometers, which gives Mekelle a density of 6,923.40 people per square kilometer. Mekelle is the largest city in northern Ethiopia and sixth largest in Ethiopia.

The two largest ethnic groups reported in this town were the Tigrayan (96.5%), the Amhara (1.59%), foreigners from Eritrea (0.99%); all other ethnic groups made up 0.98% of the population. Tigrinya was spoken as a first language by 96.26%, and 2.98% spoke Amharic; the remaining 0.76% spoke all other primary languages reported. 91.31% of the population practiced Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, and 7.66% were Muslim. Concerning education, 51.75% of the population were considered literate, which is more than the Zone average of 15.71%; 91.11% of children aged 7-12 were in primary school; 17.73% of the children aged 13-14 were in junior secondary school; and 52.13% of the inhabitants aged 15–18 were in senior secondary school. Concerning sanitary conditions, about 88% of the urban houses had access to safe drinking water at the time of the census, and about 51% had toilet facilities [1].

Mekelle, the capital town and political and economic center of Tigray Regional State, is presently experiencing rapid growth. As a result, the number of commercial food establishments in the city has been visibly increasing since 1991. The regional Health Bureau has undertaken various regulatory and promotional activities to decrease the threat of food borne disease outbreaks from such establishments.

Lachi is a small district found southwest of Mekelle, capital city of the regional state of Tigray. It is characterized by semi-urban status. The population of Lachi district is estimated to be 4500 with female dominating society. We the project owners believe that the population of Lachi in general and the children (severely) in particular are being affected by diseases caused by lack of sanitation.

With respect to defining sanitation most professionals would agree that “sanitation” as a whole is a “big idea” which covers inter alia:

• Safe collection, storage, treatment and disposal/re-use/recycling of human excreta (feces and urine);

• Management/re-use/recycling of solid wastes (trash or rubbish);

• Drainage and disposal/re-use/recycling of household wastewater (often referred to as sullage or grey water);

• Drainage of storm water; treatment and disposal/re-use/recycling of sewage effluents;

• Collection and management of industrial waste products; and

• Management of hazardous wastes (including hospital wastes, and chemical/radioactive and other dangerous substances).

In line to this, Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes. Hazards can be physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease. Wastes that can cause health problems are human and animal faeces, solid wastes, domestic wastewater, industrial wastes and agricultural wastes. Hygienic means of prevention can be by using engineering solutions (e.g., sewerage and wastewater treatment), simple technologies (e.g., latrines, septic tanks), or even by personal hygiene practices (e.g., simple hand washing with soap) [2].

The World Health Organization states that:

Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and faeces. Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease world-wide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact on health both in households and across communities. The word ‘sanitation’ also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal.

The term “sanitation” can be applied to a specific aspect, concept, location or strategy, such as:

Basic sanitation - refers to the management of human faces at the household level. This terminology is the indicator used to describe the target of the Millennium Development Goal on sanitation.

On-site sanitation - the collection and treatment of waste is done where it is deposited.

Examples are the use of pit latrines& septic tanks.

Food sanitation - refers to the hygienic measures for ensuring food safety.

Environmental sanitation - the control of environmental factors that form links in disease transmission. Subsets of this category are solid waste management, water and wastewater treatment, industrial waste treatment and noise and pollution control.

Ecological sanitation - an approach that tries to emulate nature through the recycling of nutrients and water from human and animal wastes in a hygienically safe manner.

According to UNICEF (meeting the MDG drinking water and sanitation),

Safe drinking water, sanitation and good hygiene are fundamental to health, growth, survival and development. However these basic necessities are still a luxury for many of world’s poor peoples. Over 1.1 billion of our fellow citizens don’t use drinking water from safe water sources. While 2.6 billion lack basic sanitation. Safe drinking water and sanitation are obviously to health that they risk being taken for granted. Efforts to prevent death from diarrhea or to reduce the burden of such diseases as ascaris, dracunculiasis, hookworm, schistosomiasis, and trachoma are doomed to failure unless people have access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Lack of basic sanitation indirectly inhibits the learning abilities of millions of school aged children who are infested with intestinal worms transmitted through inadequate sanitation facilities and poor self hygiene [3].

Sub Saharan region remains the area of greatest concern. It is the region of the world where many people are dying due to lack of sanitation. More intensive, effective and concerted action by all stake holders is needed in order to save the peoples dying due to lack of sanitation.

According to USAID,

Ethiopia’s 81 million people have one of Africa’s lowest rates of access to water supply, sanitation, and hygiene despite abundant surface and groundwater resources. Ethiopia is also among the sub Saharan countries in which peoples in general and children in particular are dying due to lack of basic necessities. Thus, the government must collaborate with different stake holders so as to minimize and if possible to stop death of children due to lack of sanitation.

This project will give a due focus to Lachi district where in many children are dying due to lack of basic necessities. So this project is aimed at minimizing the death of children which are caused by lack of sanitation.

Project Goal

What is the broad goal the project seeks to achieve?

Improving the livelihood of peoples living in Lachi district:

As healthy children are bases for the overall societal wellbeing to improve the health of children means indirectly to help the society healthy thereby to have productive society which in turn improves the livelihood of the society.

Project objectives/project purpose

The objective of the project is:

To minimize the deaths of children (less than the age of 7) due to lack of sanitation in 50%.

Project background/rationale

Wherever humans gather, their waste also accumulates. Progress in sanitation and improved hygiene has greatly improved health, but many people still have no adequate means of disposing of their waste. This is a growing nuisance for heavily populated areas, carrying the risk of infectious disease, particularly to vulnerable groups such as the very young, the elderly and people suffering from diseases that lower their resistance. Poorly controlled waste also means daily exposure to an unpleasant environment [4].

In 2004, only 59% of the world population had access to any type of improved sanitation facility. In other words, 4 out of 10 people around the world have no access to improved sanitation. They are obliged to defecate in the open or use unsanitary facilities, with a serious risk of exposure to sanitation-related diseases. While sanitation coverage has increased from 49% in 1990, a huge effort needs to be made quickly to expand coverage to the MDG target level of 75%. Investing in sanitation infrastructure involves a long project cycle.

If the MDG sanitation target is to be achieved, innovative approaches need to be developed to reduce the time span from policymaking to services delivery. The global statistics on sanitation hide the dire situation in some developing regions. With an average coverage in developing regions of 50%, only one out of two people has access to some sort of improved sanitation facility. The regions presenting the lowest coverage are sub-Saharan Africa (37%), Southern Asia (38%) and Eastern Asia (45%). Western Asia (84%) has the highest coverage among developing regions [5].

Human excreta have been implicated in the transmission of many infectious diseases including cholera, typhoid, infectious hepatitis, polio, cryptosporidiosis and ascariasis. WHO (2004) estimates that about 1.8 million people die annually from diarrhoeal diseases where 90% are children under five, mostly in developing countries. Poor sanitation gives many infections the ideal opportunity to spread: plenty of waste and excreta for the flies to breed on, and unsafe water to drink, wash with or swim in. Among human parasitic diseases, schistosomiasis (sometimes called bilharzias) ranks second behind malaria in terms of socio-economic and public health importance in tropical and subtropical areas. The disease is endemic in 74 developing countries, infecting more than 200 million people. Of these, 20 million suffer severe consequences from the disease.

The discharge of untreated wastewater and excreta into the environment affects human health by several routes:

• By polluting drinking water;

• Entry into the food chain, for example via fruits, vegetables or fish and shellfish;

• Bathing, recreational and other contact with contaminated waters;

• By providing breeding sites for flies and insects that spread diseases;

Ethiopia is one of the most underprivileged countries in the world, ranking 105 out of 108 on the human poverty index. Approximately 50-70% of the population lives under the absolute poverty line, and the under-5 mortality rate is 123 deaths per 1,000 live births. About 85% of the populations live in rural areas. Sanitation- and hygiene-related diseases are among the most common deadly diseases in Ethiopia. In urban slums and rural areas alike, the majority of the population does not have access to sufficient and safe sanitation [6].

Ethiopia as one part of the developing world with no proper sanitation infrastructure do share almost similar problem with these countries. But it is not to mean that the degree of the problem is identical all over the country, it is to mean while in the rural area the situation is worst relatively better in the urban one. Lachi a semi rural district nearby Mekelle city is the one that is severely affected with sanitation problems which caused many of children to die.

Thus, the rationality why we are intending to design a project in the area is that, even though sanitation is an overall problem throughout the country it is sever in this area and solving the problem means to improve the living condition of the society in the area.

Problem Analysis

2.6 Billion of the world’s population lack basic sanitation. Where by Lack of basic sanitation indirectly hampers the learning abilities and more importantly in question the life of these of millions of children.

Sub Saharan region is the one of the areas of the world where many people are dying due to lack of sanitation. More concentrated, effective and rigorous action by all stake holders is needed in order to save the peoples dying due to lack of sanitation (Unicef).

In line to this, according (USAID) Ethiopia’s 81 million people have one of Africa’s lowest rates of access to water supply, sanitation, and hygiene despite abundant surface and groundwater resources. Ethiopia is also among the sub Saharan countries in which peoples in general and children in particular are dying due to lack of basic necessities.

More specifically Lachi district which is founded in the Tigray regional state is also among the areas where in peoples particularly children dying because of lack of sanitation and hygiene. In the district many people are being adversely affected by the diseases caused due to lack of sanitation. This problem of sanitation is becoming a major reason for the death of peoples though the prominent victims of the problem are children whose age is less than seven. In addition to this it is also becoming the reason for the drop out of and hindrance of the achievement of the children [7].

Appraisals of the Proposed Project

Technical appraisal of the proposed project

Clearly, every project must be technically feasible. Technical Appraisal provides a comprehensive review of all technical aspects of the project such as rendering judgment on merits of technical proposals and operating costs. Various elements preconditions for the success of project will be considered for example technical experts in the field will be invited to participate, collaborators, stake holders and etc., as a result of this appraisal The location of the Lachi district is found to be suitable and the machines that are going to be used or applied are not as such sophisticated.

Economic appraisal of the proposed project

The proposed project with regard to Lachi district will have cost benefit analysis that is the benefit will outweigh the cost and on the other hand as far as it is a development project it will benefit the community or the larger society because without sustaining the life or health of the children it will be unthinkable to assure over all development and it is also part and parcel of the millennium development goals of the country at large.

It will have a direct economic benefit because it will save the loss of or death of children who believed to be productive or decide the economic fate of the country.

It will help the society or the country at large to have proportional income with regard to income distribution. Because the increment in population number will have an impact upon the distribution of income at country level as well as at the region level particularly.

The project will have an Impact on level of savings and investments in society. On the part of savings or with regard to it will minimize the cost or saves the money that will be going to be consumed for health treatment for the children of the Lachi district will be highly minimized or get saved.

The project will also have an Impact on fulfillment of national goals: because decreasing the number of death of children below the age of seven is part of national goal. Wherein we are assuring or achieving millennium development goals and the policies and strategies of ministry of health. With regard to this, the project will have the following fruit full advantages.

• Self sufficiency: it will prevent the children from various communicable disease and become self sufficient economically in the future in which if they did not grew with full of health they will be un productive and dependent upon others for the fulfilment of their daily consumption.

• Employment: the project will create employment opportunities for various expertises in this particular project. For example nurses, doctors, sociologists, economists, politicians, influential individuals and the community at large.

Project market (demand analysis) of the proposed project

The project that is going to be done has nothing to do with market because it is just a development project which is believed to be use full for the larger community of the area. Because not all costs and benefits fall on the immediate group of individual participants; some may have wider impacts (known as externalities), not all costs and benefits have market prices and not all market prices reflect the true costs and benefits to society [8].

Institutional feasibility analysis of the proposed project

The supporting institutions (believed to be collaborated as expected) are in place. They will operate effectively within the existing legislative and policy environment. The supporting institutions for example like the bureau of health and sanitation will provide with possible policy advice and the necessary budget by integrating different stake holders and collaborators.

The project will identify opportunities for institutional strengthening and capacity building. The project will help the bureau to identify the opportunities and challenges that the bureau will encounter so as to come up with new policies and strategies so as to solidify its institutional capacity.

Environmental analysis (feasibility) of the proposed project

The project will not have any adverse effects on the environment since the project idea or notion deals with minimizing the death of children below the age seven.

Remedial measures will not be included in the project design because there will not be adverse effect upon the environment and largely upon the society as far as the notion of the project is concerned in the above rather it will have a positive impact upon the environment and the larger community of the district. For example the environment will keep its cleanness or its hygiene and more over the children will be healthy and productive respectively.

Sustainability and risk feasibility of the proposed project

The project will not be exposed to any undue risks given that natural catastrophes’ will not harm the project. The project will be beneficial and Sustainable beyond the life of the project as far as it is a development project not market driven (oriented) project.

Political feasibility of the proposed project

The project will be compatible with government policy, at both central and regional levels. The main rationale for this is that, it is part and parcel of the political agenda of the federal government and specifically that of the regional state of Tigray. It is already stipulated in the policies and strategies under the broader umbrella of the ministry of health at the federal level and specifically at the region level and it is also one agenda of the millennium development goals which is aimed at decreasing child mortality rate as to make the children healthy and more productive so as to facilitate societal transformation [9].

So, politically the project is quite feasible with regard to the above mentioned indispensable (core) points.

Financial analysis (appraisal) of the proposed project

The project can be financed there will be sufficient funds to cover the expenditure requirements during the life of the project. Because, the government at federal level together with that of the regional State of Tigray will allocate the necessary budget for the successful accomplishment of the project because it is part and parcel of the policies and strategies of both the federal and regional state and particularly that of the ministry of health both at federal and regional level.

It is also big concern and one issue in the context of millennium development goals and that of GTP of the Country. As a result of this the government will not be hesitant to owe the necessary budget.

With this all efforts carried out by both level of governments the involvement (participation) of different collaborators and key stake holders like that of funders, civil society, pressure groups, NGOS, Interest groups, lobbyists, individual personalities who are willing to take part collaborators and various government agencies and etc., will have an immense role for the success of the project.

Social and gender appraisal (analysis) of the proposed project

The project will have a positive impact upon different groups, for example at individual, household and community levels. In terms of individual level the project will save children from disease caused because of poor sanitation. At house hold level the project will make the house hold healthy and more productive and in line to this the community will become participatory, active, healthy, productive and cooperative in the overall issues of the country and specifically at region level to bring about over all societal transformation.

The project will also have an impact with regard to both on women and men. With regard to women the project will minimize the burden of to house hold chores (Activities) because if a child becomes healthy the burden of looking after the child will get decreased (minimized). The project will relief the women from such activity and help her to take part (participate) in other economic activity. With regard to men, it will minimize the expenses that will be paid for health treatment of their children. So, this connotes that economically the project is also vital.

Therefore both women and men will become willing to take part in the successful accomplishment of the project. For example by providing financial support as far as their capacity concerned, providing their labor, skill, and possible advice and so on. So all in all, the social benefits of the project will be greater than its costs [10].

Situational analysis (appraisal) of the proposed project

In the district (Lachi) there is a problem of perpetual death of children below the age of seven so, to deal with it a project is already proposed to mitigate or relief the children from death. So, the need behind or the rationale behind the project is that to save the children from death, make them healthy and more productive in the future. Along With this local resource (like stone, wood and sands) are to some extent also available to accomplish the project .in addition to this the community will be willing to provide labor, contribute finance (money), their skill, local experts and aggressively mobilize for the successful accomplishment of the project.

The planning processes will be firmly linked with the implementation procedure of the project for the successful end of the project.

Implementation and Monitoring Plan

Implementation of a project is the step where all the proper planned activities are put into action. Usually project implementation process involves preparing, deployment, maintaining and use of the final product of the project. Project managers and sometimes project team members are committed to controlling and monitoring project implementation process. Project team helps run project evaluation process which precedes project implementation process. Projectevaluation process includes performing a complete analysis of customer’s needs and requirements and results in forming the definition of one or more projects to be implemented. Project Implementation process may be effective if some very important factors are kept in mind that are urgent in a project management system, Drucker (nd).

Project implementation consists of a number of activities. Among the activities, securing community participation for launching the project, co-ordination of activities, monitoring, and taking care of contingencies are the major once. These activities are usually the responsibility of a project manager/coordinator or a project management committee.

Project management

Project management includes various management functions. From these functions, co-ordination, team-building and monitoring progresses are the most important things that will considered in our project. So in the process implementation the following activities will be taken as major ingredients of the project.

Co-ordination committee and teams

Co-ordination is the process whereby two or more people/ organizations work together to deal collectively with a shared task.

In our project there will be four coordination committees that will coordinate the teams namely Finance, Construction, Training provider’s Health service provider’s teams.

Teams

In order to successfully accomplish the project will organize three teams

1. Finance team

• Procurement team

• Auditing team

2. Construction team

• Architects

• Contractors

• Finance team

3. Training providers team

• For the awareness creation programs - Hygiene promotion team

4. Health service providers team

To achieve all the expected results of this project, the teams are expected to exhibit the following characteristics:

• Openness and honesty

• Good communication ability

• Building interdependence among the members

• High degree of tolerance and mutual respect

• Commitment to a common purpose and goals

• An efficient and flexible structure and leadership

• The ability to take strength and energy from each other

• Celebrate successes and share failures together

In the process of co-ordination problems such as lack of commitment among team leaders, lack of openness and poor work habits may be the expected problems but to solve these types of problems the project manager and the concerned bodies will strictly follow up each activities and they will take an immediate action.

In doing this the project manager and team co-coordinators will have an important leadership qualities to motivate people in such a way that they feel positive about their responsibilities, to delegate and assign responsibilities to people, to manage conflict to make sure that differences are addressed and effective working relationships are developed, to communicate information so that people have the information they need to perform their work effectively and efficiently.

Staffing: In the process staffing the project management bodies will be critical in recruiting people with appropriate qualifications for positions in the organization; recruiting people who have a good experiences, orienting new people to their positions to help them learn about their responsibilities, the relationships within the organization, the organization’s goals and objectives, and the culture of the organization; Providing training when necessary to upgrade people’s skills.

Project activities

Activity is the process of identifying the specific schedule activities that need to be performed to produce the various project deliverables. In other words Activity is the decomposition of the work packages. During the activity definition one answers the questions, what has to be done? Other questions like “who will do the activity”, “how much time will it take”, or “when has it to be started or finished” will be answered.

Having this definition for project activities, in our project different activities are going to be undertaken to minimize death of children due to lack of sanitation in Lachi district (Table 1).

Activity Location Partners
Building health center Lachi Government, community and NGO’s.
Fulfilling the materials that enable the families to keep their family’s sanitation(for two years) Lachi Government
Developing People’s awareness towards the severity of the disease Lachi Local  Health  Office(close to   the   district)   and   the nearby schools
Continual supervision by the gov’t Lachi Government
Teaching families to give priority to their children than to any thing Lachi Local  Health  Office(near to  the   district)   and government
Undergoing and supervising a permanent sanitation programs Lachi Government    and Local Health  Office  near  to  the district)
To buy “ISUZU” car for waste disposal Lachi Government and NGO’s
Construction of four public toilets and encouraging peoples to construct their own toilets. Lachi Community   and   Wereda
administration
Enhancing the water coverage of the project area Lachi Government

Table 1: Activities.

Building health centre: It is true that health centers can play a remarkable role in protecting the health of peoples. Along with this they can also be a means to supervise and constantly watch the health of the inhabitants. As a result of this we the project clients believe that building one heath center in the Lachi district can be a vital or can contribute a magnificent contribution in keeping the sanitary of the peoples particularly the children and in improving the life of the general people in broad- spectrum. With regard to this activity our project is aimed at building one health center to the peoples residing in that district.

While undertaking this activity different stake holders will play different roles. As a result of this government, the community of Lachi and non-governmental organization will be participated in advance. We the project clients strongly hold the idea that, this involvement of different stake holders will mean many things towards the successful accomplishments of the project.

We the project clients strongly believe that the participation of the community can have an immense role in the accomplishment and in every steps of the project. Without which the overall project activities cannot even go one step forward. So the project will give greater focus to the active enrollment of the community.

Fulfilling the materials that enable the families to keep their family’s sanitation: Fulfilling the materials that enable the families to keep their family’s sanitation is another vital activity that is going to be undertaken by the project. We found that members of Lachi community are suffering from lack of basic sanitary materials like soaps. So this lack of basic sanitary materials is adversely affecting the health of the peoples in general and the children’s in particular. Thus the project is aimed at fulfilling the basic materials which will enable the families to keep their families sanitation specifically and their health broadly. This activity will be largely accomplished by the government.

Developing people’s awareness towards the severity of the disease: We the project clients believe that the people’s awareness towards the severity of the problem is low. Accordingly the project is hopeful towards creating an understanding about the severity of the diseases caused by sanitary problems.

For the success of this activity Local Health Office (near to the district) and schools near by the community will play a remarkable role. Along with this government will also have its contribution in making this activity realistic.

Continual supervision by the government: Having all things fully supplied, if the government is not in a position to supervise the activities the expected result cannot be achieved. So government will go beneath to the earth to supervise the activities that can foster the health status of the district’s inhabitants. In doing this the government will play a continual contribution.

Teaching families to give priority to their children than to any thing: This is an activity focused on the families. In most of the rural areas families’ give more priority to their livestock rather than to their children. This negative attitude of families has been adversely affecting the life of the children. As a result of this children were losing attention by their families.

Having this problem at hand the project is inquisitive to minimize this problem and teach families that they should worry much about their children than any other things. In doing this, Local Health Office (near to the district) and government will participate at most.

Undergoing and supervising a permanent sanitation programs: Sanitary programs undergone in the Lachi district is very low. This low performance of sanitary program has also been affecting the health status of the peoples at broad and the children in particular. Therefore considering the above problem there will be a strong and permanent sanitation programs. Local Health Office (near to the district) and government are also the main stake holders for the success of this activity.

To buy a car for waste disposal: Along with the fulfilment of the materials that enable the families to keep their family’s sanitation, our project is aimed at providing an “ISUZU” car for the peoples residing in that area for waste disposal and in order to make the sanitation program long lasting. This procurement of “ISUZU” car will be made by the collaboration of NGO’s and the government.

Construction of four public toilets and encouraging peoples to construct their own toilets: It is known that toilets are among the prominent mechanisms to keep once sanitation. However we observed that there is lack of public toilets in the given project area. In addition to this the peoples are not well equipped with the own toilets. Having this problem our project has an aim of building four public toilets and encourage the community members to construct a toilet of their own. This major activity will be managed by the government.

Enhancing the water coverage of the project area: There is no doubt that water is critically vital for sanitation. So having full access of water is basic in keeping both individual and community sanitation. By considering the importance of water for sanitation, we the project owners planned to enhance the water coverage of the project area by planting different water taps. This activity will be undertaken by the government.

Stake holders (Partners) in the project

A stakeholder is the term used when referring to the people who have an interest in the outcome of the project. These will vary from project to project, and include contributors, customers, managers, and finance people (Modesto and Stephen).

In our project different stake holders or partners will be participated. Both governmental and n nongovernmental organizations are expected to play different roles.

Table 2 below will show the different stake holders that are going to be participated in the project.

Stake holders name How will they be involved?
• The Federal Government of Ethiopia(FGE) • Providing technical assistances
• Federal Ministry of Health • placing qualified professionals
  • Government of the Tigray regional state • Allocating necessary budget for the project
• Regional Health Bureau • Facilitating the activities and supervise the work
• NGO’s(Unicef)Mekelle branch • Providing financial and medical aids
• The community (the communities residing in the project area). • Participating in selected activities of the project (E.g. Giving free labor service)

Table 2: Different stake holders.

Target population

The target populations of our project are peoples residing in the Lachi district and particularly children less than the age of seven.

Participation of the community

Participating different stake holders especially the community in a project is mandatory, without which projects cannot be realized. So, participating the community plays an immense role in making once project successful. Therefore our project is going to be participatory to the local community members which can be taken as a fundamental input for the project that we are going to realize.

Project design matrix (Log FRAME)

The Project design matrix is shown in Table 3.

    Verifiable indicators Means of verification Assumptions
Goal Improving the livelihood of peoples living in Lachi district. Momentous achievement scored where in 90% of the families embarked on protecting their children health. x. A survey made in the district.
x. Local clinic reports.
 
Project
purpose
Minimize the deaths of
children (less than the age of 7) due to lack of sanitation.
Children’s death due to
lack of sanitation significantly decreased in to 2 %.
x. Data from the local
clinics.
x. Regional health bureau.
x. The community will
collaborate.
x. The project will be financed by the Tigrian regional government& international donors.
Expected Results To bring a significant
change on the life of the children, increase their life expectancy and enable them to be better off than they were before.
x. Notable change gained
on the health status of the children whereby many children started going to school.
x. Their life expectancy also increased.
x. Generally both the families & children start thinking of other things rather than worrying for their health.
x. Observation.
x. Reports from the center.
x. Reports from schools.
x. Interview made between the families and the children.
x. The community will be committed to protect their health and make their life better off.
x. The community will participate in advance in making the project successful.
         
Activities ×Building health center.
× Fulfilling the materials that enable the families to keep their family’s sanitation.
× Developing People’s awareness towards the severity of the disease.
× Continual supervision by the gov’t.
× Teaching families to give priority to their children than to any thing.
×. Undergoing and supervising a permanent sanitation programs.
x. To buy ISUZU car for waste disposal
x. Construction of four public toilets and encouraging peoples to construct their own.
x. Enhancing the water coverage of the project area.
x. many people started
going to the health center.
x. Medical equipments amply supplied Where by the peoples were suffering a lot due to shortage of medical equipments.
x. People’s awareness remarkably improved.
x. Family’s attention towards their children amazingly increased.
x. cleaning their environment and children make their habit without any one’s supervision.
x. disposing water materials permanently.
x. notable achievement scored where in, they construct toilets of their own.
x. remarkable progress were made whereby, the water coverage increased
x. Annual report from
the district.
x. Observation and interview made with the families leaders.
x. There will not be an
exaggerated rise in the cost of inputs for the projects.
x. The community will be willing to apply the advices forwarded by the service center.
x. There will not be sense of resistance from the community.
x. The project will be financed by the Tigrian regional government& international donors.

Table 3: Project design matrix.

Controlling, monitoring and evaluation

Controlling

While controlling, the following activities will be undertaken in our project:

• Measuring progress of the project

• Submitting over all reports

• Monitoring performance

• Providing feedback and etc.

Monitoring: An important part of the work of a project cocoordinator is monitoring progress. Due to this reason monitoring is taken as main element of our project implementation as it can enable our mangers to analyze the current situation, identify problems and find solutions, discover trends and patterns, maintain project activities on schedule, assess progress towards objectives and devise/amend future goals and objectives, make decisions about human, financial, and material resources.

In this project monitoring can be carried out through field visits, review of service delivery and commodities records.

Contingency management: This approach enables managers to encounter the uncertainties that affect planning processes by visualizing probable uncertainties and planning how to respond, and mitigate them.

Evaluation: Evaluation generally implies measurement, appraisal, or making judgments on the output and impact of the project in terms of the objectives. Evaluation will determine a project’s relevance, effectiveness, and benefits to the target community.

Conclusion

Ethiopia is also among the sub Saharan countries in which peoples in general and children in particular are dying due to lack of basic necessities. More specifically Lachi district which is founded in the Tigray regional state is also among the areas where in peoples particularly children dying because of lack of sanitation and hygiene. In the district many people are being adversely affected by the diseases caused due to lack of sanitation. This problem of sanitation is becoming a major reason for the death of peoples though the prominent victims of the problem are children whose age is less than seven. In addition to this it is also becoming the reason for the drop out of and hindrance of the achievement of the children.

References

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