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Novel Compounds in Lyophilized Female Camel Urine | OMICS International
ISSN: 2332-0877
Journal of Infectious Diseases & Therapy
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Novel Compounds in Lyophilized Female Camel Urine

Khogali ME Salwa1*, Elhassan MA bdalla2, Sara A Mohamed1 and Abdallh EA Barajob2

1Central Veterinary Research lab, Alamarat Khartoum, Sudan

2The National Ribat University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Khartoum, Sudan

Corresponding Author:
Salwa MEK
Department of Biochemistry, Nutrition,
Toxicology and Pharmacology, Central Veterinary Research Laboratory, Sudan
Tel: 916742300134

Received Date: February 25, 2016; Accepted Date: October 13, 2016; Published Date: October 17, 2016

Citation: Salwa MEK, Bdalla EMA, Mohamed SA, Barajob AEA (2016) Novel Compounds in Lyophilized Female Camel Urine. J Infect Dis Ther 4:296. doi: 10.4172/2332-0877.1000296

Copyright: © 2016 Salwa MEK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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The present work was done to emphasize the degraded compounds of camel urine. Lyophilized camel urine was analyzed by Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) Agilent 6890 GC. Eleven bioactive compounds were detected, four of these compounds have a novel structure, and these compounds are: 4-Heptanone,3-methyl, Butanoic Acid,butyl ester, Acetic Acid, (2,4,6-triethybenzoyl)thio, Benzoic Acid,methyl ester, Propane,2,2’- (methylenebis(oxy)bis(2-methyl-), Butane, 1,1-dibutoxy-, Pentanoic Acid, 4-oxo-, butyl ester, Benzoic Acid, butyl ester, Benzeneacetic Acid, 2-methylpropyl ester, Butylparaben. The four compounds of novel structure are: Titanium,(08-1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene)(05-2,4-cyclopentadien-1-yl),Nitroxidebis(1-1 dimethyleyl), 9,12,15- octadecatriaenoic acid, Hepta siloxane.


Camel urine; Novel compounds; Gas chromatography


Urine is a purified sterile product of blood filtration, medically referred to as plasma ultra-filtrate made by kidneys [1]. It has been shown throughout the history of medical science to this day, that urine has profound medical uses [2].

Use of animal urine is endorsed in mainstream modern medicine. Pregnant mare urine is the source of conjugated equine estrogens and has been marketed for over fifty years as pharmaceutical brand premarin, “an estrogen treatment for menopausal and pre-menopausal women” especially postpartum-one of the most prescribed drugs in United States [1]. It was very recently discovered that adding distilled cow urine to medicaments increases their effectiveness while decreasing their side-effects, making anti-cancer, anti-tubercular drug twenty times more effective and anti- bacterial eight times more effective (on line document), “urine therapy” is a stable of Ayurveda remedy [2,3].

Clinical studies on camel urine were recorded [4-10]. The results of these experiments proved that camel urine consists of many bioactive complex compounds, which can acts against bacterial, parasitic, carcinogenic agents and it has the ability to protect the liver against toxic agents [11].

Materials and Methods

Urine samples collected from natural grazing animals; then it was lyophilized using Analytical method.

Analytical method

Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was performed using Agilent 6890 N network GC system interface, with a 60 m Agilent fused capillary column, DB-5 ms, 0.25 mm 1-D, 0.25 mm Film- initial temp 100°C, hold for 2 min, then programmed at 2°C/min to 300°c, isothermal temperature was held for 10 min.

Helium carrier gas, head pressure 9.30 psi, column flow 1 ml/min. injection temp 300°c EL source 230°C, total scan mode was cycled at 2 seconds. 1 ml of the given sample has been diluted with 10 ml of diethyl chloromethane (DCM), and 1 μ was injected using split less mode.


Nist library was used for the identification of the compounds by comparison with published retention time of the chromatogram. Corrected areas % obtained by base line subtraction was used to calculate the percentage of the compounds within the injected amount.

GC-MS chromatogram of the dichloromethane extract of Camel urine, showed fourteen peaks indicating the presence of fourteen compounds.

Table 1 shows the retention time, the molecular weight and formulae and the peak area% of the detected compounds, Table 2 shows the biological activity of some detected compounds.

Retention time Name of compound Molecular formula Molecular weight Peak area%
8.13 Titanium C13H13Ti 217 1.33
8.84 4-Heptanone, 3-methyl C8H16O 128 2.3
10.88 Butanoic Acid, butyl ester C8H16O2 144 2.23
14.87 Acetic acid,(2,4,6-triethylbenzoylthio) C15H20O3S 280 1.9
15.03 Benzoic acid, methyl ester C8H8O2 136 8
17.76 Propane,2,2’-(methylenebis(oxy)bis 2-methyl C9H20O2 160 1.27
21.41 Butane,1,1-dibutoxy C12H26O2 202 26.59
21.67 Pentanoic acid, 4-oxo-,butyl ester C9H16O3 172 3.12
27.12 Benzoic acid, butyl ester C11H14O2 178 22.9
40.64 Butylparaben C11H14O3 194 27.71
  Nitroxidebis (1-1 dimethylelyl C8H18NO 292  
71.73 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid C18H30O2 278 5.32
  Heptasiloxane C16H48O6Si7 533  

Table 1: Retention time, Molecular weight and formulae and Peak area % of the detected compounds.

No Name of compound Activity
1 4-Heptanone, 3Methyl Anti-bacterial, Anti-fungal
2 Benzoic acid, butyl ester Antiseptic, Anti-oxidant, Anti-cancer
3 Butylparaben Anti-microbial
4 Nitroxid Anti-oxidant, Anti-microbial
5 9,12,15 octadecatienoic acid Anti-oxidant, Anti-tumor, Anti inflammatory
6 Pentanoic acid, 4-oxo-, butyl ester Anti-microbial
7 Benzoic acid, methyl ester Anti-oxidant, Anti-microbial
8 Propane2,2-methylene bisoxy bismethyl Anti-oxidant
9 Butanoic Acid, butyl ester Anti-oxidant

Table 2: Biological activity of some detected compounds.

Figure (1-4) show the GC- MS chromatogram of the dichloromethane extract of lyophilized camel urine (Heptasiloxane), Nitroxide bis (1-1 dimethyleyl), Titanium,(08-1,3,5,7- cyclooctatetraene)(05-2,4-cyclopentadien-1-yl) and 9,12,15 octadecatriaenoic acid, respectively [12].


Figure 1: MS chromatogram of the dichloromethane extract of lyophilized camel urine (Heptasiloxane).


Figure 2: GC- MS chromatogram of the dichloromethane extract of lyophilized camel urine (Nitroxide bis (1-1 dimethyleyl).


Figure 3: GC- MS chromatogram of the dichloromethane extract of lyophilized camel urine(Titanium,(08-1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene)(05-2,4- cyclopentadien-1-yl).


Figure 4: GC- MS chromatogram of the dichloromethane extract of lyophilized camel urine (9,12,15-octadecatrienoic).

Benzoic acid, methyl ester 1.3%, Propane-2,2-methylene bisoxy bismethyl 1.27%, Butanoic Acid, butyl ester 2.23%, Benzoic acid, butyl ester 22.9%, Nitroxid and 9,12,15 octadecatienoic acid were found in the urine extract that have an antioxidant activity, 9,12,15 octadecatienoic acid Butanoic acid, and Acetic acid Are have an anticancer effect [13].

Butanoic acid and Acetic acid also have an anti-microbial effect [13]. Benzoic acids and its esters are employed externally as antiseptics, lotions, ointments, creams and mouth washes. It is more effective as a preservative in foods and pharmaceutical products. Benzoic acid is an antiseptic but irritating, so used only externally. It is used in the treatment of burns, frostbite, chaps, cracks, erythema, pruritus, ulcers, infected dermatitis and other minor wounds [14].

4-Heptanone, 3-methyl which presented 2.3% [15], documented that, it has an anti-fungal effect.

Octadecatrienoic acid, (Z,Z,Z)- and Vitamin E which contributes the activities like antimicrobial, antioxidant anticancer, Hypercholesterolemic, Antiulcerogenic and other activities [16]. Butylparaben 27.71% was reported that, it has an anti-microbial effect [17].


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