Plant Development and Defense: Signal Transduction and Action
Received Date: Feb 27, 2021 / Accepted Date: Mar 13, 2021 / Published Date: Mar 20, 2021
Keywords: Signal Transduction, Plant Development
Carbohydrates are a type of biological macromolecule that can be found in all living things. They are a primary source of energy and play a significant role in giving species structure. Monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides are all forms of carbohydrates contained in nature. Interconversions, synthesis, and roles of carbohydrates are studied in carbohydrate biochemistry. Jasmonic acid (JA) is one of the most important signalling phytohormones in plant growth and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Root elongation, pollen production, germination, fruit ripening, and plant senescence are all controlled by this protein. It also helps plants defend themselves against pests, infections, and abiotic stress. Plant cells are rich in jasmonic acid and its counterpart methyl jasmonate, which have a physiological signalling function. Jasmonates have recently been discovered to be the active form precursors of certain amino acid conjugates.
The first step in JA synthesis occurs in chloroplast membranes, where a phospholipase transforms membrane phospholipids to -linolenic acid and hexadecatrienoic acid. The octadecanoid pathway is used to synthesise JAs from the -linolenic acid precursor. The 13-hydroperoxy derivative of linolenic acid is formed by chloroplastic 13-lipoxygenase oxidising LA. Lipoxygenases are encoded by six genes in the Arabidopsis genome. Three of these genes (LOX2, LOX3, and LOX4) control the synthesis of JA. The peroxisome is where the synthesis of JA continues. The signal transduction pathway assembles on basic-helixloophelix based transcription factors, including the multifunctional MYC2, following Jasmonic acid perception. Under stress, a group of proteins known as the JASMONATE-ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) repressors regulates the JA response. CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1, a portion of the Skp-Cullin-F-box complex involved in the co-reception of biologically active JA, interacts with JAZ repressors. Pauwels et al. suggested a model to inhibit downstream transcription factors that control JA signalling. In this model, in the absence of bioactive JAs, JAZ proteins deactivate MYC2. Degr caused by JA-Ile and mediated by SCFCOI1.
Plant development and reproduction are supported by jasmonic acid [1-3]. Senescence induction, floral production, growth inhibition, tendril coiling, fruit ripening, potato tuberization, fungi arbuscular mycorrhizal association, and trichome formation are all essential physiological processes in plants. Jasmonic acid also plays a regulating function in the morphogenesis of soybean leaf and root, according to Xue and Zhang. MYB24 and MYB21 mediate stamen elongation and anther growth, and jasmonic acid is thought to regulate male fertility. In addition to the importance of cytological and molecular genetic markers in crop improvement, plant hormones such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene, which have a signalling mechanism in plant defence control processes, regulate crop responses to biotic and abiotic stresses.
Citation: Belliturk K (2021) Plant Development and Defence: Signal Transduction and Action. Biochem Physiol 10: 302.
Copyright: © 2021 Belliturk K. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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