alexa Proton-Pump Inhibitor Treatment in Eosinophilic Esophagitis is Associated with Decreased Eosinophil Degranulation | Open Access Journals
ISSN: 2161-069X
Journal of Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
Like us on:
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Proton-Pump Inhibitor Treatment in Eosinophilic Esophagitis is Associated with Decreased Eosinophil Degranulation

Jeremiah Levine*, Ying Lu, Chrystalle Katte Carreon and Morris Edelman

Division of GI, New York University Langone Medical Center, Pediatrics, 160 east 32nd street New York, NY 10016, USA

*Corresponding Author:
Jeremiah Levine
Division of GI, New York University Langone Medical Center
Pediatrics, 160 east 32nd street New York, NY 10016, USA
Tel: 12122635407
Fax: 12122635417
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: January 13, 2015; Accepted date: February 16, 2015; Published date: February 25, 2015

Citation: Levine J, Lu Y, Carreon CK, Edelman M (2015) Proton-Pump Inhibitor Treatment in Eosinophilic Esophagitis is Associated with Decreased Eosinophil Degranulation. J Gastrointest Dig Syst 5:259. doi:10.4172/2161-069X.1000259

Copyright: © 2015 Levine J, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Gastrointestinal & Digestive System

Abstract

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an increasingly recognized disorder whose diagnosis is based on histologic demonstration of eosinophilic inflammation. We previously reported improvement of symptoms in children with EoE on long-term proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) monotherapy despite persistent eosinophilic inflammation. We sought to determine whether PPI monotherapy in children with EoE is associated with decreased eosinophil degranulation. Ten children with EoE had esophageal biopsies assessed for eosinophil, mast cell and Langerhans cell concentration and eosinophil degranulation at diagnosis and following PPI treatment. There was no significant difference in cell concentrations between initial and one-year follow-up. A significant decrease in number of free lying granules was observed at the one-year follow-up biopsies. Prolonged PPI therapy in EoE is associated with decreased eosinophil degranulation.

Keywords

Eosinophilic esophagitis; Proton-pump inhibitors; Degranulation

Introduction

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an increasingly recognized disorder. Diagnosis of EoE is based on histologic demonstration of eosinophilic inflammation, with ≥15 eosinophils per high power field (hpf) being the cutoff most commonly used, in the absence of pathologic reflux as evidenced by a normal pH monitoring study or persistent inflammation on high-dose proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment [1]. Symptoms include feeding issues, vomiting, chest or abdominal pain, dysphagia and food impaction [2].

Eosinophils contain multiple toxic granules, whose content include basic proteins, cytokines, chemokines, lipid mediators, and oxygen radicals. Free-lying granules serve as a surrogate marker for released eosinophil products that promote tissue damage, inflammation, remodeling, and fibrosis [3]. Eotaxin-3 is a chemokine stimulated by T-helper cytokines to recruit and activate eosinophils. PPI’s have been shown to block eotaxin-3 release, suggesting a role independent of acid production [4]. We previously reported improvement of symptoms in children with EoE on long-term PPI monotherapy despite persistent eosinophilic inflammation [5]. We hypothesized that symptomatic improvement in our patients was due to a PPI effect in eotaxin 3-induced degranulation. Therefore, we sought to determine whether the improvement with PPI monotherapy was associated with decreased eosinophil degranulation.

Methods

We reviewed the records and biopsies from ten patients previously described [5] with EoE who improved clinically on PPI monotherapy. All patients were between 1 month and 18 years old, were on an unrestricted diet, were diagnosed with EoE based on standard criteria [1] with persistence of eosinophils on follow-up biopsies 3 months after diagnosis while on PPI, and had undergone follow-up endoscopy at least one year after diagnosis.

Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections were reproduced from formalin fixed paraffin-embedded, endoscopically-obtained esophageal biopsies and evaluated to quantify eosinophils and assess degranulation. Immunohistochemical staining with tryptase for mast cells, and S100 for Langerhans cells using standard methodology was performed to evaluate their presence and possible role in eosinophil recruitment.

Using 400X magnification, all intraepithelial eosinophils were counted in three separate fields that had the highest density of eosinophils in each slide. The average number of eosinophils for these three fields was reported. The same method was used to quantify mast cells (tryptase) and Langerhans cells (S-100).

Using 600X magnification, areas with the highest concentration of scattered eosinophil granules were photographed using a Nikon Digital Sight DS-Fi1 microscope camera. Each image was printed on standard short bond paper (21.5 cm x 28 cm, representing a microscopic field of 7752 µm2). A 5.3 cm x 6.8 cm rectangular frame (corresponding to a microscopic area of 1938 µm2) was used to designate the areas with the highest density of free-lying eosinophil granules. All free-lying granules within this framed area in three separate fields were counted, and the mean was reported.

Statistics

Comparison of results between presentation and most recent endoscopy was performed using paired t-test. Results are expressed as mean ± SD.

This study was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board of the North Shore - LIJ Health System.

Results

Demographics

The mean age of the patients was 6.6 ± 4.8 years with 7 males. Presenting complaints were dysphagia (4), failure to thrive (3), abdominal pain (1) and vomiting (2). The patients had a second follow-up biopsy 17.1±8.5 months following initiation of PPI. The mean PPI dose was 1.5 ± 0.6 mg/kg. Nine patients were treated with lansoprazole and one child with esomeprazole. All patients were either asymptomatic (n=9) or significantly improved (n=1) on PPI monotherapy.

Comparison between biopsies at diagnosis and follow-up on PPI therapy

There was no significant difference in eosinophil count between initial and follow-up endoscopies. Compared to the initial endoscopy, the granule count decreased by the 3-month follow-up endoscopy and significantly decreased by the 1-year follow-up (Table 1).

Compared to initial endoscopy, the mast cell number was not different at the 3-month or 1-year follow-up endoscopy. The Langerhans cell number was increased at the 3-month follow-up endoscopy, but was not significantly different from the initial endoscopy at the 1-year follow-up (Table 1).

  Mean±SD pvalue*
Eosinophils/hpf    
Initialendoscopy 106.2±38.6  
3-monthendoscopy 76.7±60.1 NS
One-yearendoscopy 67.6±75.6 NS
Granulecount    
Initialendoscopy 105.5±58.1  
3-monthendoscopy 72.0±28.2 NS
One-yearendoscopy 48.7±43.3 p<0.05
Mastcells/hpf    
Initialendoscopy 6.4±12.9  
3-monthendoscopy 3.4±2.7 NS
One-yearendoscopy 4.7±5.7 NS
Langerhanscells/hpf    
Initialendoscopy 3.7±2.5  
3-monthendoscopy 6.8±3.5 p<0.01
One-yearendoscopy 5.5±2.1 NS

Table 1: Comparison of histological markers in Eosinophilic Esophagitis. *p values are comparing 3-month and 1-year endoscopy to initial endoscopy.

Comparison between proximal and distal esophageal biopsies

There was no statistically significant difference in eosinophil number between proximal and distal biopsies for all endoscopies. There was no difference in granule number between proximal and distal biopsies on the initial and 3-month follow-up endoscopies. However, at the 1-year follow-up endoscopy, the granule number in the proximal biopsy (50.8±41.8) was significantly increased compared with the distal biopsy (25.1±28.7, p<0.05, Table 2).

  Proximalesophagus(mean±SD) Distalesophagus
(mean±SD)
pvalue
Initialendoscopy 139.2±84.2 151.0 ± 10.5 p=NS
3-monthendoscopy 61.4 ± 30.2 46.0 ± 41.7 p=NS
Oneyearendoscopy 50.8 ± 41.8 25.1 ± 28.7 p<0.05

Table 2: Granule counts in proximal and distal esophagus.

Discussion

Our case series suggests that children diagnosed with EoE treated with PPI monotherapy for at least one year have decreased eosinophil degranulation despite persistent eosinophilic inflammation. The persistence of eosinophils in these patients is not surprising since the criteria used for diagnosing EoE is lack of histologic response to PPI therapy. However, the finding of decreased degranulation despite the persistence of eosinophilic inflammation with only PPI therapy has not been previously described.

The decline in granules and improvement in symptoms may be due to an effect of PPI on eosinophil function. Zhang et al. [4] demonstrated that omeprazole significantly inhibited IL-4 stimulated eotaxin-3 protein secretion and m-RNA expression in EoE esophageal cells. Eotaxin-3 is known to be a potent eosinophil chemoattractant, but it also plays a role in activation and degranulation of eosinophils [4]. Although the studies suggest that PPI has an in-vitro effect [4] as well as a clinical benefit [5] in EoE, our current study is the first to associate the clinical improvement with the decrease in eosinophil degranulation. Reduced eosinophil degranulation after PPI is a morphologic finding that correlates with reduced eotaxin secretion. One of the novelties of the current paper lies in the fact that it provides a morphologic correlate of the biochemical findings, and allows a visual window into the mechanism involved. It is likely that eosinophil degranulation contributes to clinical symptoms, perhaps by inducing inflammation and fibrosis [3]. Although our patients who were clinically well still had some degree of free-lying esophageal granules, the significant decrease in granule number suggests that the lesser degree of degranulation is the factor leading to the clinical improvement. The lack of effect of PPI therapy on eosinophil number in our study may reflect the fact that eotaxin-3 may have a quicker or earlier effect on eosinophil degranulation than recruitment, and that longer PPI treatment may eventually lead to decreased tissue eosinophilia.

We noted that the granule number in distal biopsies at 1-year follow-up was significantly more decreased than the granule count in proximal biopsies. It is known that patients with EoE have dysmotility [2] which may predispose them to reflux-induced disease. One may postulate that the acid-suppressive effect of PPI contributes to improvement in eosinophil degranulation noted in the distal biopsies.

The inflammatory cascade may play a role in EoE [2]. In this study, we found that the mast cell number did not differ between initial and follow-up endoscopies in the EoE group. Langerhans cells were increased at the 3-month biopsy compared with the initial biopsies; however, the numbers were not different between initial and 1-year biopsies.

Eosinophils contain many different toxic granules and it is unclear which specific granule is responsible for the inflammation, remodeling and fibrosis seen in EoE. Free-lying granules serve as a surrogate marker for all released eosinophil products. Therefore, in this study we did not attempt to identify the specific protein seen within the released granules.

This paper examines the extracellular localization of the eosinophil granules in the epithelium, not the protein content of the granules. The tinctural properties of these granules are stable after fixation. Although formalin fixation may theoretically have an effect on eosinophil degranulation at the moment the tissue is placed into formalin, all tissues were treated the same way. Once embedded in paraffin the tissues are stable in a state of "suspended animation" reflecting their morphology at the time of fixation. Degranulation cannot occur once the tissue is embedded in paraffin.

The patients studied were all maintained on a regular unrestricted diet, and therefore, any differences could not be due to changes in dietary exposure. The patients in our EoE group are distinct from those patients who are thought to have a newly described entity called PPI-responsive esophageal eosinophilia. In that group, patients have increased esophageal eosinophilia but respond histologically to PPI monotherapy [1].

Prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings, to evaluate the precise mechanism in which PPIs decrease eosinophilic degranulation, and the role granules play to explain symptomatic improvement.

References

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Recommended Conferences

Article Usage

  • Total views: 11731
  • [From(publication date):
    April-2015 - Nov 18, 2017]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 7954
  • PDF downloads : 3777
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords