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Journal of Pharmacokinetics & Experimental Therapeutics - Short Note on Oral Absorption of Glycoside Analogues

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  • Short Communication   
  • J Pharmacokinet Exp Ther 2023, Vol 7(2): 169
  • DOI: 10.4172/jpet.1000169

Short Note on Oral Absorption of Glycoside Analogues

Zang Wang*
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Institute of Pharmacy, Japan
*Corresponding Author: Zang Wang, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Institute of Pharmacy, Japan, Email:

Received: 03-Apr-2023 / Manuscript No. jpet-23-96545 / Editor assigned: 05-Apr-2023 / PreQC No. jpet-23-96545 (PQ) / Reviewed: 18-Apr-2023 / QC No. jpet-23-96545 / Revised: 20-Apr-2023 / Manuscript No. jpet-23-96545 (R) / Published Date: 27-Apr-2023 DOI: 10.4172/jpet.1000169


Nucleoside analogues square measure 1st line remedy in multitudinous severe distemperatures AIDS( acquired immunological complaint complaint pattern), herpes contagion infections, cancer, etc. still, several glycoside analogues parade poor oral bioavailability attributable to their high opposition and low thick porousness. so as to prompt around this disadvantage, prodrugs are utilised to enhance lipophility by chemical revision of the parent medicine. As an volition, prodrugs targeting transporters gift within the gut are applied to request the transport of the glycoside analogues. Valacyclovir and valacyclovir square measure 2 classic essential amino acid organic emulsion prodrugs transported by oligopeptide transporter one. The perfect prodrug achieves delivery of a parent medicine by attaching anon-toxic half that is stable throughout transport, still is snappily degraded to the parent medicine formerly at the target. This textbook presents advances of prodrug approaches for enhancing oral immersion of glycoside analogues. Within the gift work, we've a tendency to delineate the conflation, antiviral biographies and metabolic stability in mortal tube of emulsion half- dozen, a possible carbonate prodrug of HIV- 1 NNRTI medicine seeker RDEA427. composite half- dozen was set up to inhibit the wild- type( WT) and K103N/ Y181C double mutant HIV- 1 strains at Nano- and submicromolar attention, severally.


Nucleoside analogues; Oral bioavailability; Prodrug


Nucleoside analogues square measure artificial composites that square measure structurally kind of like natural nucleosides and, as similar, square measure erecting blocks of nucleic acids. They act either as impediments of cellular and pestilent agent deoxyribonucleic acid and polymer polymerases or as chain terminators by incorporating into a growing deoxyribonucleic acid or polymer beachfront [1]. Natural nucleosides square measure concerned in the maturity cellular processes and plays a primary part in structural, energetic, regulative and metabolic functions. Hence, several glycoside analogues have cellular toxin with effectiveness against bacterium, fungi, incentive, contagions or growth apkins that's attributed to their organic chemistry mode action [2]. presently, glycoside analogues square measure imagined to be drug that square measure given in 1st attention in several serious sickness’s like no inheritable immunological complaint complaint pattern( AIDS), hepatitis, cancer, herpes, smallpox, etc. Of the about forty antiviral drug formally approved to be used,0.5 square measure glycoside or ester analogues [3]. Glycoside drug generally should be phosphorylated to the corresponding triphosphates by intracellular or pestilent agent kinases so as to ply their pharmacologic exertion. Transport of glycoside analogues across the channel is generally intervene by unresistant prolixity or active transporters( Na-independent equilibrative transporters and Na-dependent concentrative transporters). still, their chemical wisdom parcels square measure infelicitous for unresistant Transcellular thick immersion. Meanwhile, glycoside analogues do not feel to be natural substrates and show low affinity for glycoside transporters. Hence, oral immersion of glycoside analogues is generally confined [4].

Material and Methods

Carboxylicacidesters prodrugs

Carboxylicacidesters prodrug approach is wide habit to ameliorate oral immersion of glycoside analogues, within which the group set at the aspect chain of glycoside analogues is esterified with organic acid and the other way around. The carboxylicacidesters- type prodrugs generally retain important enhancement in water- solubility, semipermeable membrane porousness, protein stability and bioavailability,etc [5].

Acyclovir and its prodrugs

Acyclovir( ACV) belongs to BCS III order drug and possesses exertion against mortal herpes contagions. still, as a result of its defined bioavailability( 20), ACV shows moderate antiviral effectiveness when oral administration. Hence, it's necessary and possible to term a prodrug for rising oral immersion of ACV. Valacyclovir( VACV) is that the essential amino acid organic emulsion prodrug of ACV targeting thick oligopeptide transporter one( PepT1) and has been tried to be safe and effective medicine [6]. It’s been the foremost in prodrug targeting PepT1. PepT1 may be a proton- coupled transporting macromolecule and preponderantly distributed within the little thick beast towel cells. It came a placing prodrug- designing target lately, since some inadequately absorbed drug are frequently changed as peptidomimetic prodrugs targeting thick PepT1 to enhance oral immersion of the parent medicine. 3′- hydroxyl cluster of ACV was esterified with lvaline to arrange VACV. VACV has been reported to extend the oral bioavailability of ACV by 3- to5-fold in humans [7].

After the prestigious pass of PepT1- targeted prodrug approach, the dipeptidylpeptidase IV( DPPIV/ CD26) prodrug strategy was applied to ACV for advanced water- solubility and oral bioavailability. DPPIV/ CD26 belongs to a singular order of membrane- associated peptidases. It’s metropolitan on form of cell membranes, like multitudinous white cell subsets and several other styles of beast towel, epithelium, and constructive cell cells. What's further, a answerable kind of the protein has been detected in humour and tube at low quantities [8].

Penciclovir and Famciclovir

Penciclovir is associate degree acyclic nucleoside glycoside analogues, that displays the same diapason of property and antiviral exertion compared with overtax. Due to its poor oral bioavailability. it's necessary to term AN oral different of penciclovir. Famciclovir could be a double prodrug containing ethanoyl radical diester and 6- deoxy promoieties. It's expeditiously bioactive to the parent medicine via catalyst deacetylation and chemical response once oral administration. Famciclovir has been substantiated to be effective for mortal VD infections and herpes zoster. Clinical studies incontestible the prodrug might be chop- chop absorbed and also the oral bioavailability of penciclovir rose up to seventy seven following one cure of famciclovir. In distinction, the ethanol radical diester of penciclovir did not show any sweetening in oral immersion compared to the parent medicine. Monocarbonate prodrug of 6- deoxy penciclovir was jointly assessed in vivo with the stopgap of fresh expeditiously changing the prodrug to the parent kind. Slightly advanced or similar urinary recovery of penciclovir was determined with numerous monocarbonate prodrugs in mice and rats compared to Famciclovir [9].


Nucleotide analogues play an important part within the treatment of cancer and contagions. Since the rate- limiting step within the conformation of triphosphate is conversion of glycoside analogues to its monophosphate, monophosphate organic emulsion prodrugs of glycoside analogues were designed in an trouble to bypass the original phosphorylation activation step. Still, each glycoside analogues and monophosphate organic emulsion prodrugs of glycoside analogues area unit polar motes and have confined membrane porosity. Hence, cut of viscos beast towel membrane is generally confined. Over the once decade, numerous cultural prodrug styles are utilised to beat these limitations. The exemplifications represented during this review illustrate the multitudinous analysis sweats done to enhance the oral bioavailability of glycoside analogues. Ancient prodrug approaches by enhancing lipophilicity are applied to enhance unresistant prolixity [10].


Prodrugs targeted to PepT1 are set up terribly helpful for enhancing oral immersion of polar drug. PepT1 has come a promising target since they are extremely expressed within the bowel with high capability and multitudinous substrate particularity. Advances in prodrug style have bettered the worth of glycoside composites as metastatic excrescence and antiviral agents. The illustration represented during this composition any prove that prodrug approach is an effective strategy for over oral immersion of glycoside analogues.



Conflict of Interest



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Citation: Wang Z (2023) Short Note on Oral Absorption of Glycoside Analogues. JPharmacokinet Exp Ther 7: 169. DOI: 10.4172/jpet.1000169

Copyright: © 2023 Wang Z. This is an open-access article distributed under theterms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricteduse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author andsource are credited.