Dersleri yüzünden oldukça stresli bir ruh haline sikiş hikayeleri bürünüp özel matematik dersinden önce rahatlayabilmek için amatör pornolar kendisini yatak odasına kapatan genç adam telefonundan porno resimleri açtığı porno filmini keyifle seyir ederek yatağını mobil porno okşar ruh dinlendirici olduğunu iddia ettikleri özel sex resim bir masaj salonunda çalışan genç masör hem sağlık hem de huzur sikiş için gelip masaj yaptıracak olan kadını gördüğünde porn nutku tutulur tüm gün boyu seksi lezbiyenleri sikiş dikizleyerek onları en savunmasız anlarında fotoğraflayan azılı erkek lavaboya geçerek fotoğraflara bakıp koca yarağını keyifle okşamaya başlar
Reach Us +44-3308187254


International Journal of Inflammation, Cancer and Integrative Therapy - Squamous Cell Oral Cancer with Cervical Metastases and Cyclin D1 Expression
ISSN: 2381-8727

International Journal of Inflammation, Cancer and Integrative Therapy
Open Access

Our Group organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)
  • Case Study   
  • Int J Inflam Cancer Integr Ther, Vol 10(3)

Squamous Cell Oral Cancer with Cervical Metastases and Cyclin D1 Expression

Ores Frenzi*
Center of Radiotherapy, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest, Hungary
*Corresponding Author: Ores Frenzi, Center of Radiotherapy, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest, Hungary, Email:

Received: 29-May-2023 / Manuscript No. ijm-23-98274 / Editor assigned: 01-Jun-2023 / PreQC No. ijm-23-98274(PQ) / Reviewed: 15-Jun-2023 / QC No. ijm-23-98274 / Revised: 22-Jun-2023 / Manuscript No. ijm-23-98274(R) / Published Date: 29-Jun-2023


The most important prognostic factor for oral carcinomas is cervical metastasis. Cervical metastasis is influenced by clinical and histological variables, but recent years have seen a significant increase in the study of molecular factors.

Aim: This study's objective is to examine the Cyclin D1's potential role as a risk factor for cervical metastases.

Materials and Methods: In 45 oral cancer patients who were being treated by the author of this research, Cyclin D1 expression was assessed, and a relationship between such a substance and metastasis was discovered. The stereological approach was used to confirm the existence of cytokine D1. Analysis and correlation of metastasisrelated clinical and histological traits has been done.

Result: Although Cyclin D1 expression was observed in 15 patients, it wasn't linked to any clinical or histological characteristics that indicated the presence of metastases. Such a finding suggests that Cyclin D1 is a separate protein. Clinical staging and vascular embolisation have been the most significant prognostic factors in relation to the development of metastases.

Conclusion: Despite being independent, Cyclin D1 is not linked to cervical metastases; nevertheless, staging and vascular embolisation.


Cyclin d1; Squamous cell carcinoma; Mouth cancer metastases immunohistochemistry; Malignant mouth tumors; Oral cancer


More than 90% of malignant mouth tumors are epidermoid carcinomas, and its survival is affected by disease staging. Survival is 79% when the disease is local, 42% when it is locoregional; and when there are distant metastases1, the survival rate is 19% [1, 2]. Prognostic factors include clinical, histological, and most recently biological or molecular characteristics that can predict cure and survival. The presence of neck metastasis is the most important prognostic factor in mouth cancer, making the diagnosis of distant metastasis essential for oncology treatment planning [3-5].

Cervical metastasis recognizable proof is helped out through actual test and reciprocal tests, which flop in the finding of 20 to 35% of the clinically negative patients. Such misleading negative rate is considered high and legitimizes preventive neck treatment. Patient survival is significantly reduced when the primary tumor is treated alone and there is concealed neck metastasis [6]. Patient determination for neck freedom is in a general sense in light of the growth clinical qualities, concerning its size and location. This selection is also helped by histopathological characteristics like the level of cellular differentiation and the thickness of the tumor; despite this, the failure rate remains high. In an effort to determine which patients are more likely to develop neck metastasis, researchers are investigating the biological aspects of tumors [7].

The gene CCND1 that makes the protein D1 cyclin is on chromosome 11q13. Motokura5, who observed that an increase in cyclin contributes to the genesis of tumors and acts on the cellular cycle by accelerating phase G1, identified this protein as an oncogene in 1991. Immunohistochemistry reveals the presence of D1 cyclin in head and neck cancer. The higher D1 cyclin expression, the less likely a patient will survive, so many researchers consider it a prognostic factor in carcinomas of the esophagus, breast, uterine cervix, colon, rectum, and melanomas [8].

In this study, we looked at the relationship between neck metastasis and D1 cyclin expression in 45 mouth epidermoid carcinoma patients. Our research aimed to investigate the relationship between neck metastasis risk factors and D1 cyclin expression [9].

Case presentation

Between January 1991 and December 2001, 45 mouth epidermoid carcinoma patients operated on by the author were the subjects of our study. The patients endured growth careful resection in its place of beginning and neck lymphnode freedom. Patients with clinically diagnosed metastasis (N+) and those without clinical metastasis (N-) were included in the neck lymphnode surgery [10].

Histologic slides from the primary tumor were used to examine the expression of D1 cyclin. We checked on patients' diagrams and gathered pre-careful clinical information, pathologic test information from the careful example and post-employable turn of events.

Patients who experienced any one or more of the following were excluded from the study:

• Surgery with no intent to treat

• Other attendant neoplasias or history of earlier growths.

• Neo-adjuvant treatment (radiation therapy and chemotherapy).

• Patients whose records were lacking.

• Clinical staging cannot be defined

We then obtained the paraffin blocks containing the patients' primary tumors for our research. We made cross sections of each tumor that were 4 mm thick from the main block.

The sections were baked at 60 degrees Celsius for 24 hours on slides that had been pre-treated with 10% poly-L-lysine (Sigma, USA).

After three 10-minute xylene incubations, the paraffin was removed and rehydrated in decreasing concentrations of ethanol, beginning with absolute ethanol and continuing with 90%, 80%, and 70% for three minutes in each dilution. The sections were then rinsed three times with distilled water [11].

Antigenic destinations recuperation with trypsin processing was done subsequent to warming at 37oC in a 0.1% trypsin arrangement with 0.1% calcium chloride in 7.8 pH. The slides were then hatched in this answer for 30 minutes at 37oC, and were then washed in refined water.

Antigen was exposed at high temperature by incubating in a glass cradle with a buffer containing 1 mM of EDTA at a 45-degree angle for five minutes and fifty seconds at mean power and eight minutes at low power (Panasonic, 1.500W microwave oven) [12].


D1 cyclin clinical and histologic qualities of the 45 patients considered might be seen on Table 1.

Correlation among metastatic and non-metastatic gatherings with respect to the accompanying factors: demographics, clinical characteristics, habits, histology, and the molecular characteristics of the tumor.

15 cases (33.3%) tested positive for D1 cyclin, while the remaining 30 cases (66.7%) tested negative. In the positive cases, the average number of labeled nuclei (Qa) varied between 0.15 and 1.24. Three patients also showed protein expression in the cytoplasm of their cells.

On the basis of clinical and histological characteristics, habits, demographics, and D1 cyclin, the associations and correlations between patients with metastasis (pN+) and those without it (pN-) are shown. The multivariate examination used to assess the gamble of D1 cyclin relationship with other potential gamble factors was completed and is portrayed.


According to a different method of reading immunohistochemistry, D1 cyclin was expressed in 15 (33.3%) patients from the sample, which is consistent with published results that range from 30 to 40. The studies on D1 cyclin and cancer count the percentage of nuclei labeled by a group of neoplastic cells, which typically range from 500 to 1000 cells, to determine whether cyclin is present [13]. The researcher must count all neoplastic cells, regardless of whether they are marked, then recount the cells that express the protein and calculate the percentage using this method. In addition to being labor-intensive, it poses a greater threat of counting distortions. The selection of the cutting point at which the positive and negative D1 cyclin expressions are separated is arbitrary. When there are more than 5% of the nuclei that are labeled, Han consider it positive. D1 cyclin expression is only considered significant by Ravi Itami and Capaccio when it is present in more than 10% of tumoral cells [14]. El-Naggar think about values above half as an overexpression of this protein. Mineta define low expression as values between 0 and 50%, and high expression as values above 50%. Schoelch utilize the negative score when there is no articulation, + for up to 33% articulation, ++ somewhere in the range of 33 and 66% and +++ above 66% of protein articulation in cancer cells [15].


The current examination drives us to presume that:

• Expression of D1 cyclin appears to be unrelated to mouth epidermoid carcinoma.

• It is highly unlikely that the presence of neck metastasis is correlated with D1 cyclin.

• Vascular embolization and clinical organizing were the main variables as neck metastasis indicators in the cases thus examined.

• In this study, neck metastasis was a significant factor in our patients' survival, but D1 cyclin was not.



Conflict of Interest



  1. Talhout R, Schulz T, Florek E, Benthem J, Wester P (2011) Hazardous compounds in tobacco smoke. Int J Environ Public Health 8: 613-628.
  2. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  3. Saygin C, Matei D, Majeti R, Reizes O, Lathia JD (2019) Targeting cancer stemness in the clinic: from hype to hope. Cell Stem Cell 24: 25-40.
  4. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  5. Ginestier C, Hur MH, Charafe-Jauffret E, Monville F, Dutcher J (2007) ALDH1 is a marker of normal and malignant human mammary stem cells and a predictor of poor clinical outcome. Cell Stem Cell 1: 555-567.
  6. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  7. Hirata N, Sekino Y, Kanda Y (2010) Nicotine increases cancer stem cell population in MCF-7 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 403: 138-143.
  8. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  9. Dick JE (2008) Stem cell concepts renew cancer research. Blood 112: 4793-4807.
  10. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  11. Plaks V, Kong N, Werb Z (2015) The cancer stem cell niche: how essential is the niche in regulating stemness of tumor cells? Cell Stem Cell 16: 225-238.
  12. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  13. Cleary AS, Leonard TL, Gestl SA, Gunther EJ (2014) Tumour cell heterogeneity maintained by cooperating subclones in Wnt-driven mammary cancers. Nature 508: 113-117.
  14. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  15. Swanton C (2012) Intratumor heterogeneity: evolution through space and time. Cancer Res 72: 4875-4882.
  16. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  17. Plaks , Kong N, Werb Z (2015) The cancer stem cell niche: how essential is the niche in regulating stemness of tumor cells? Cell Stem Cell. 16: 225-238.
  18. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  19. Afify SM, Seno M (2019) Conversion of stem cells to cancer stem cells: undercurrent of cancer initiation. Cancers 11: 345.
  20. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  21. Afify SM, Calle AS, Hassan G, Kumon K, Nawara HM, et al. (2020) A novel model of liver cancer stem cells developed from induced pluripotent stem cells. Br J Cancer 122: 1378-1390.
  22. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  23. Osman A, Afify SM, Hassan G, Fu X, Seno A, et al. (2020) Revisiting cancer stem cells as the origin of cancer-associated cells in the tumor microenvironment: a hypothetical view from the potential of iPSCs. Cancers 12: 879.
  24. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  25. Li T, Su Y, Mei Y, Leng Q, Leng B (2010) ALDH1A1 is a marker for malignant prostate stem cells and predictor of prostate cancer patients' outcome. Lab Invest 90: 234-244.
  26. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  27. Li H, Chen X, Calhoun-Davis T, Claypool K, Tang DG (2008) PC3 human prostate carcinoma cell holoclones contain self-renewing tumor-initiating cells. Cancer Res 68: 1820-1825.
  28. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  29. Huang R, Wang S, Wang N, Zheng Y, Zhou J (2020) CCL5 derived from tumor-associated macrophages promotes prostate cancer stem cells and metastasis via activating beta-catenin/STAT3 signaling. Cell Death Dis 11: 234.
  30. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

Citation: Frenzi O (2023) Squamous Cell Oral Cancer with Cervical Metastasesand Cyclin D1 Expression. Int J Inflam Cancer Integr Ther, 10: 229.

Copyright: © 2023 Frenzi O. This is an open-access article distributed under theterms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricteduse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author andsource are credited.