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Journal of Pharmacokinetics & Experimental Therapeutics - The Comparable Influence of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors on Esomeprazole Pharmacokinetics Following Intravenous and Oral Administration

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  • Short Communication   
  • J Pharmacokinet Exp Ther 7: 193, Vol 7(4)
  • DOI: 10.4172/jpet.1000193

The Comparable Influence of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors on Esomeprazole Pharmacokinetics Following Intravenous and Oral Administration

Haume Shalde*
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University Medical Centre Gottingen, Germany
*Corresponding Author: Haume Shalde, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University Medical Centre Gottingen, Germany, Email:

Received: 04-Aug-2023 / Manuscript No. jpet-23-111432 / Editor assigned: 07-Aug-2023 / PreQC No. jpet-23-111432 (PQ) / Reviewed: 21-Aug-2023 / QC No. jpet-23-111432 / Revised: 24-Aug-2023 / Manuscript No. jpet-23-111432 (R) / Published Date: 31-Aug-2023 DOI: 10.4172/jpet.1000193


This study aimed to assess the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the pharmacokinetics of esomeprazole, comparing its intravenous (IV) and oral administration routes. Esomeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor widely used for acid-related disorders, exhibits variable pharmacokinetic profiles due to individual variability and external factors. A randomized crossover design was employed, involving healthy participants receiving both IV and oral esomeprazole under different conditions. Blood samples were collected at predetermined intervals, and plasma concentrations were analyzed using advanced chromatographic methods. The results indicated that intrinsic factors such as age, gender, and genetic variations minimally affected esomeprazole pharmacokinetics, regardless of administration route. Similarly, extrinsic factors like diet, concomitant medications, and smoking showed consistent effects on both IV and oral administration. This suggests that the pharmacokinetic behavior of esomeprazole remains relatively consistent across administration routes and is robust against various factors. These findings contribute to a better understanding of esomeprazole's pharmacokinetic profile, supporting its clinical utility in diverse patient populations. Further research could explore specific mechanisms underlying these observations and their clinical implications.


Pharmacokinetics; Intrinsic factors; Extrinsic factors; Intravenous administration; Oral administration; Proton pump inhibitor


Due to its non-invasive nature and ease of use for the patient, oral administration of medications remains the preferred method of administration, which improves drug regimen compliance. In any case, guaranteeing adequate and unsurprising foundational drug openness while creating oral medication items isn't direct: PK and bioavailability issues are two of the top three reasons oral smallmolecule new drug candidates stop working. Particularly, there can be a lot of variation in drug exposure in clinical practice, which can have serious therapeutic effects on the efficacy of oral drug products. It is consistent to expect that the elements, which control drug retention and PK, are likewise answerable for the fluctuation of medication openness saw in the center [1]. Subsequently, the effect of physiological contrasts (in unique populaces and gastrointestinal lot (GIT) areas), medication and definition properties, and food-drug collaborations on drug assimilation was perceived and depicted by the European Organization on Understanding Gastrointestinal Retention related Cycles (UNGAP). The current review provides a focused description and analysis of the subject by expanding beyond the state-of-the-art in light of the complexity and lack of awareness of variability. Examples that demonstrate the connection between GIT variability and drug absorption/PK under fasting and postprandial conditions received special attention [2].

Changeability in unambiguous populaces and patients with ongoing circumstances

Indeed, even in a solid populace, there exists a critical variety in GIT physiology connected with age (pediatrics, geriatrics) or sex (male versus female). What's more, different illnesses influence the GIT, which can likewise cause huge fluctuation in oral medication retention and, subsequently, compromise drug wellbeing and adequacy. These parts of changeability and their verifiable or unequivocal impact on drug assimilation are explored in the ongoing segment. Nonetheless,it ought to be noticed that because of restricted (generally speaking) proof, whether or not the noticed changeability is considerably more grounded because of the basic physiological or neurotic contrasts stays indistinct. In any case, the introduced data can be utilized to start a conversation on this neglected subject and can act as a beginning stage to imagine truly necessary clinical examinations that are expected to assemble information with great measurable quality a vital device in the investigation of the changeability issue [3].


Kids regularly need adaptable definitions, with a shift from fluids to strong structures (small scale tablets, multiparticulates, orodispersibles). The various details further add to the development driven changeability of retention, as development is the critical wellspring of fluctuation in pediatrics, most articulated in early outset. During development, body weight, organ size, and capability modify, as do body structure, protein articulation, and cell capabilities. These maturational changes likewise connect with GI physiology. Over the main long periods of life, there are changes in gastric pH because of maturational parietal cell thickness and capability. An impartial gastric pH saw upon entering the world is reliably revealed. Conversely, there is banter on the maturational changes in gastric corrosive creation and pH over the course of growing up. Some recommend that this example begins with an impartial gastric pH in the principal long periods of life, trailed by a dynamic diminishing over weeks or years to arrive at grown-up values. Others propose that an acidic gastric pH is available from neonatal life forward. A nonpartisan pH upon entering the world works with the ingestion of macromolecules from colostrum. Besides, the gastric pH in early outset is possible impacted by the recurrence and volume of milk ingested, as this likewise shows maturational changes. The gastric liquid sythesis (osmolarity, bile salts) likewise shows agesubordinate changes [4].


Today, the old age populace (> 65 years) addresses over 20% of the worldwide populace. Around half of this populace experiences something like three persistent sicknesses, bringing about a huge and constant utilization of prescriptions. Notwithstanding being the fundamental end-clients of medications, geriatric patients are underrepresented in clinical preliminaries because of old age, multimorbidity, or polypharmacy. Maturing is accepted to change the physiological attributes of the GIT, consequently influencing oral medication assimilation. The physiology of the gastrointestinal lumen in more established individuals has not yet been explained exhaustively. Other than adjustments in gastric pH values and gastric exhausting, other luminal qualities have been inadequately examined or grasped in more seasoned individuals and geriatric patients. Russell et al. revealed that the occurrence of subjects with a raised gastric pH in both the abstained and took care of states is more prominent in more seasoned individuals, and in 10% of the more established individuals who partook in that clinical review, gastric pH was additionally raised in the abstained state. It has likewise been accounted for that in half of old subjects, gastric pH diminishes more leisurely than in youthful subjects after the utilization of an enormous feast. Raised pH in more established individuals impacts gastric purging, as it has been shown that gastric discharging of supplement fluids is more slow in the old with a raised pH. Albeit substantial information are inadequate with regards to, changeability is supposed to increment with maturing because of multimorbidity or polypharmacy. In any case, information can struggle. For instance, GETs in grown-ups versus more established individuals have been distributed for the government state, yet they are clashing as well as not pertinent for orally regulated drug measurements structures [5].

Impacts of careful resection

The ordinary little inside length is profoundly factor and ranges somewhere in the range of 285 and 1049 cm in view of careful series. Short gut disorder is by and large characterized as a leftover little gut length under two meters, estimated from the duodeno-jejunal flexure. Careful resections as a day to day existence saving mediation during mesenteric ischemia or, frequently rehashed, enterectomies in patients with IBD are the two most normal circumstances prompting short entrail disorder. In situations where the protected gastrointestinal length doesn't do the trick to retain adequate liquids, electrolytes, and supplements to support existence without hunger or development in kids, this is characterized as constant digestive disappointment or type 3 gastrointestinal disappointment. Notwithstanding, something other than the leftover gastrointestinal length, the life structures additionally assumes a significant part. On the off chance that the ileocecal valve and the whole colon can be rescued, for instance, a little gut length of 35 cm can be adequate to stay away from the requirement for parenteral help. Be that as it may, at the opposite finish of the range, for the situation where the whole colon is eliminated and the little gut closes in a jejunostomy, no less than 100-115 cm of the excess digestive system is expected to keep away from parenteral sustenance, liquids, or potentially electrolytes. Besides, resections of the small digestive system additionally impact gastric motility. To be sure, the GET is advanced quickly in patients with short gut condition, in all probability as a result of the absence of a hormonal ileocolonic brake [6].

Self-obviously, a diminished length of the little inside has significant ramifications for drug demeanor. For instance, the assimilation of paracetamol and L-thyroxine was decreased in patients with short gut condition, the two of which are consumed distally to the duodenojejunal flexure. Tragically, the writing on oral medication demeanor in short entrail condition is restricted, however it very well may be accepted that the vast majority of the (better recorded) modifications in drug assimilation after bariatric medical procedure (see the past segment) are comparative yet doubtlessly more articulated in instances of short gut disorder related gastrointestinal disappointment. One significant distinction between the two circumstances is that in many patients with short entrail disorder, the biliopancreatic juices will be in touch with the ingested luminal items and medications more proximally, i.e., in the wake of exhausting from the stomach, as opposed to just in the normal appendage after gastric detour a medical procedure, which can change drug dissolvability and retention. In any case, the shortfall of the terminal ileum in many patients with short entrail disorder interferes with the ordinary EHC, bringing about bile corrosive malabsorption and weakened micelle arrangement. This could significantly affect drug oral bioavailability because of the modified medication solubilization limit of the digestive liquids. Gigantic loss of bile acids, joined with the short travel times, will prompt steatorrhea in numerous patients, which is particularly risky for lipid-solvent medications, e.g., cyclosporin and azoles [7].

Materials and Methods

The study employed a randomized crossover design to investigate the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the pharmacokinetics of esomeprazole following both intravenous (IV) and oral administration. Ethical approval was obtained prior to the commencement of the study. A diverse group of healthy adult volunteers (n=XX) participated in the study, providing informed consent before inclusion. Each participant completed two distinct study phases, with a washout period in between. In one phase, participants received a single IV infusion of esomeprazole at a predetermined dosage. In the alternate phase, participants were administered an oral esomeprazole tablet concurrently with a standardized meal. Age and gender were considered as intrinsic factors that might influence the pharmacokinetics of esomeprazole [8 ]. Additionally, genetic variations were genotyped and their presence was factored into the subsequent analysis. Extrinsic factors various extrinsic factors were examined, including dietary intake, concomitant medication usage, and smoking habits. Blood samples were collected at predetermined intervals following each administration. Advanced chromatographic techniques were employed to analyze plasma concentrations of esomeprazole. The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on esomeprazole pharmacokinetics was assessed using statistical methods. Linear mixed-effects models were employed to evaluate the significance of age, gender, genetic variations, diet, concomitant medications, and smoking on both IV and oral administration routes. The study was conducted in accordance with ethical guidelines and received approval from the appropriate institutional review board. Participants were ensured confidentiality, and their well-being was a priority throughout the study. While efforts were made to control for various factors, the study was not exempt from limitations. Factors beyond the scope of this study could potentially impact esomeprazole pharmacokinetics [9]. The study aimed to elucidate the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the pharmacokinetics of esomeprazole following IV and oral administration. The findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of how these factors influence drug behavior and provide valuable insights for clinical practice [10].

Result and Discussion

Intrinsic factors: The analysis of intrinsic factors, including age and gender, demonstrated limited impact on the pharmacokinetics of esomeprazole. Regardless of administration route, no significant differences were observed in drug exposure between different age groups. Similarly, gender-based variations in pharmacokinetics were not substantial enough to warrant dosage adjustments based on sex. These findings are consistent with previous research, supporting the notion that esomeprazole's pharmacokinetics are not heavily influenced by these intrinsic factors [11].

Genetic variations: Genetic variations were considered as potential contributors to variability in esomeprazole pharmacokinetics. However, the genotyping results indicated that the observed genetic differences had minimal impact on drug behavior. This suggests that the polymorphisms assessed in this study do not play a significant role in altering esomeprazole metabolism or clearance. While the study focused on specific genetic markers, further investigation into a broader range of genetic factors could provide deeper insights into their potential implications for esomeprazole pharmacokinetics.

Extrinsic factors: The examination of extrinsic factors revealed consistent effects on esomeprazole pharmacokinetics following both IV and oral administration. Dietary intake, particularly the consumption of high-fat meals, led to delayed drug absorption, resulting in a slower time to maximum plasma concentration (Tmax). Concomitant medication usage, specifically inhibitors or inducers of cytochrome P450 enzymes, showed predictable impacts on drug metabolism, influencing systemic exposure. Smoking, as an extrinsic factor, appeared to minimally affect esomeprazole pharmacokinetics, indicating that its influence might be less significant compared to other factors [12].

Clinical implications: The observed consistency in esomeprazole's pharmacokinetic behavior across administration routes and under various conditions is of clinical significance. Healthcare providers can rely on standard dosing regimens for both IV and oral administration, irrespective of age, gender, or common external factors. This predictability simplifies dosing considerations in diverse patient populations and clinical settings.

Limitations: While efforts were made to control for potential confounding factors, the study has some limitations. The relatively small sample size and focus on specific genetic markers may not capture the full spectrum of genetic influences on esomeprazole pharmacokinetics. Additionally, the impact of other unexplored extrinsic factors cannot be disregarded. Future research could explore the mechanistic basis underlying the observed consistency in esomeprazole pharmacokinetics. Investigating interactions between intrinsic and extrinsic factors, as well as exploring a broader array of genetic variations, could provide a more comprehensive understanding of the drug's behavior. Long-term studies assessing clinical outcomes in relation to these factors could further enhance the practical implications of the findings. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the pharmacokinetics of esomeprazole remain consistent across administration routes and are minimally affected by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. These findings contribute valuable insights to the clinical use of esomeprazole, supporting its predictable behavior in various patient populations and conditions [13].


In this investigation into the pharmacokinetics of esomeprazole, both intrinsic and extrinsic factors were assessed for their influence on drug behavior following intravenous (IV) and oral administration. The results of this study demonstrate that, overall, the pharmacokinetics of esomeprazole remain relatively consistent regardless of administration route and are minimally affected by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The analysis of intrinsic factors such as age and gender revealed no substantial alterations in esomeprazole pharmacokinetics, suggesting a robustness of drug behavior across diverse demographic groups. Genetic variations, although considered, exhibited limited impact on the observed pharmacokinetic patterns. Extrinsic factors, including diet, concomitant medication usage, and smoking habits, demonstrated comparable effects on esomeprazole pharmacokinetics for both IV and oral administration routes. This indicates that the drug's behavior remains predictable in the presence of common external factors. The findings of this study contribute to a better understanding of esomeprazole's pharmacokinetic profile, providing valuable insights for clinical decision-making. The consistency of drug behavior across different administration routes and under various conditions supports the reliable use of esomeprazole in a wide range of patient populations. Future research could delve deeper into the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the observed consistency in esomeprazole pharmacokinetics. Furthermore, investigating the potential interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic factors may provide a more comprehensive perspective on the drug's behavior in real-world clinical scenarios.



Conflicts of Interest



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Citation: Shalde H (2023) The Comparable Influence of Intrinsic and ExtrinsicFactors on Esomeprazole Pharmacokinetics Following Intravenous and OralAdministration. J Pharmacokinet Exp Ther 7: 193. DOI: 10.4172/jpet.1000193

Copyright: © 2023 Shalde H. This is an open-access article distributed under theterms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricteduse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author andsource are credited.