The Neurologist: Clinical & Therapeutics Journal - The Coveted Journey of Surgical Robotics in Neurosurgery

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  • Review Article   
  • Neurol Clin Therapeut J , Vol 5(3)

The Coveted Journey of Surgical Robotics in Neurosurgery

Umar Hassan1, Shehreen Sohail2*, Muhammad Asad Asif3, Hamza Rana4, Anser Ikram Rishi5, Fahad Shuaib5, Fareeha Sohail6 and Mukarram Farooq4
1Department of Medicinal Sciences, University of King Edward, Pakistan
2Department of Microbiology, University of Central Punjab, Pakistan
3Department of Medicinal Sciences, University of Rawalpindi, Pakistan
4Department of Medicinal Sciences, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Pakistan
5Department of Medicinal Sciences, Rawalpindi Medical University, Pakistan
6Department of Microbiology, Government College University, Pakistan
*Corresponding Author: Shehreen Sohail, Department of Microbiology, University of Central Punjab, Pakistan, Email: [email protected]

Received: 22-Oct-2021 / Accepted Date: 05-Nov-2021 / Published Date: 12-Nov-2021


Surgical Robotics might help proficiently execute chaotic assignments that require a serious level of precision, and this, in enormous part, clarifies robotic technology has collected certain use in an assortment of neurosurgical practical applications, including diagnostic intracranial biopsies and spinal invasive processes plus arrangement of intra cranial surgical leads. The utilization of automatic technology in neurosurgery presents many advantages, and inborn constraints, to the specialists and their cases. In this detailed review, we give an authentic outline of advanced mechanics and its execution across different thorough claims, and talk about the different automated frameworks that have been grown explicitly for neurosurgical applications. Neuronavigation frameworks use a mechanical extended arm fitted camera cluster for visual following of infrared or visible Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) or potentially intelligent markers, which are regularly mounted to thorough instruments. Robot aided neuronavigation relies upon comparative boundaries as ordinary path frameworks. Robots require extra DoF in the actual apparatus with the goal that the it can push the device around in void. The overall imperative is nearly 6 DoF to proceed in an interactive 3-D climate, yet the methodology of straightening instruments is restricted to a straight linear line.

Keywords: Surgical robotics; Autonomous surgery; Artificial intelligence; Neurosurgery


The notion of simulating himself with the usage of a computerized robot structure has been in man’s intuition in the last 3000 years. However, the practice of robots in therapy has only 30 years of account. The application of robots in surgery originates from the need of modern man to achieve two goals: the telepresence and the performance of repetitive and accurate tasks. There has always been talk about the general benefits of surgical frameworks contrasted with conventional comprehensive methods, especially in accordance with coordination of image detection capacity of the mechanical arm to dependably perform pre-arranged errands .As additional neurosurgeons embrace the utilization of automated technology in their training, we hypothesize that further innovative progressions will open up that will assist with accomplishing worked on specialized capacities, client experience, and in general persistent clinical results that will assist with accomplishments on specialized capacities, client experience, and in general persistent clinical results [1].

Literature Review

The history and evolution of surgical robotics

Specialists continually endeavor to work on careful results by making systems more secure, faster, and less intrusive. A prime empowering influence of progress is the advancement of new careful apparatuses and innovations. The main careful robot helped a muscular strategy in 1983 (which was initially licensed as a functioning supporting gadget), and simply 10 years after the fact the primary industry minimally invasive Surgery robot, Aesop, was giving voice regulated situating of a functional endoscope. Aesop’s help was expected to work on surgical work process by giving the specialist endoscope management. Improvement of the infamous “da Vinci Robot System “started in 1995, and it turned into the main professionally employable surgical automated robot for common laparoscopic procedure in 1998-1999. The 4 critical particulars in the da Vinci’s item vision were unwavering quality, instinctive control, 6 level of opportunity aptitude in addition to grasp control, and stereoscopic representation [2]. These particulars tended to regular constraints of the contemporary mechanical frameworks in regions that can antagonize MIS. The primary utilization of a real time robot for classical neurosurgery was in1980- 1985 when a mechanical robot (namely PUMA) was utilized to direct biopsy tubes and cannulas under Computerized Tomography (CT) direction, further developing precision and diminishing technique time contrasted and a physically customizable edge.

Minimally invasive surgical robotics

Staying away from unnecessary harm to tissues works on careful outcomes and patient recuperation, which has propelled the quick development of laparoscopic medical procedures since the mid-1980s. More modest and less entry points cause less injury and advance speedier healing, yet make it more difficult to perform detailed assignments. To relieve such difficulties, specialists have started to depend on particular instruments and automated help.

The neuroArm mechanical framework was the early teleoperated surgical automated framework created for exclusively neurosurgical usage. Similar as the da Vinci framework, the neuroArm manages a tele-operated mechanical assembly that can be readily used by a client at a distant workplace, and the automated arm gives haptic review to the specialist, in this manner giving better expertise and steadiness. The neuroArm was likewise completely magnetic resonance imaging viable, allowing the specialists to get input dependent on ongoing imaging got over the span of the procedure. With the expertise offered by mentioned MIS robots like the early da Vinci and the intelligent functional neuroArm, there was further developed input and the access keeps on being shared objectives [3]. Two different ways to work on the critique from the robotic location to the specialist are having the info interactions shoved on the specialist’s hands, dependent on powers estimated at the devices, or giving material impressions to the specialist’s fingers. In endeavors to get to more locales (e.g., inside of vessels), automated robots have expanded levels of opportunity to cross restricted halls. In examination, miniature/nanorobots sufficiently small to swallow (or breathe in or infuse) might have the option to get to an assortment of areas in the body with negligible injury. While mechanical stages have been displayed to bring to the table clinical and functional advantages inside MIS, they have presented new difficulties as far as their work process, specialist and staff preparing, just as monetary effects inside medical clinics and medical services frameworks. Studies have shown that health suppliers and medical clinics can accomplish a net advantage regardless of these difficulties, with cautious advancement of their automated projects and proper utilization of the innovation. Additionally, there will be significant contemplations identified with work process influence, preparing needs, and the specific situation that will be special to neurosurgery; in any case, exercises gained from encounters with stages [4].

Image recognition in neurosurgery

The utilization of mechanical technology in invasive neurosurgery is firmly combined with the utilization of clinical imaging and novel navigation setups, which have reformed neurosurgery in the course of recent years. In numerous methods, finding and uncovering the vitality techniques of interest requires critical skill, time, and care to keep away from pointless tissue harm. In that capacity, picture path assumes an essential part in neurosurgery, a basic instrument in the neurosurgeon’s arsenal. For sure, the motivation behind the surgical navigation having such an effect in neurosurgery is because of the intrinsic dangers and difficulties related with neurosurgical tasks, like working in profoundly compelling regions, encircled by a large number of veins and an exceptionally delicate and touchy cerebrum parenchyma [5]

Present day neuronavigation was initially presented during the 1980s, and it was made conceivable given the huge progressions in the imaging innovation and PC frameworks accessible. This was completed utilizing an ultrasonic reach locater and a bunch of amplifiers on a formal help in the working room. Magnifying instrument posture was determined estimating the acoustic drive expedition times. Presently, mainstream neuronavigation frameworks use a mechanical extended arm fitted camera cluster for visual following of infrared or visible Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) or potentially intelligent markers, which are regularly mounted to thorough instruments [6-9]. Robot aided neuronavigation relies upon comparative boundaries as ordinary path frameworks. By applying automated and semi-independent innovation, the objective is to diminish mistakes in enrollment and increment precision; this turns out to be particularly significant in examples like sleeping implantation of potential deep mind triggers. With the expansion of intra-operative surgical visualization and imaging, the specialist can represent little changes in the detailed field and change careful arranging continuously, and combination with mechanical help gives a more consistent and smooth insight when contrasted with past outline-based strategies (Table 1).

Procedure Salient features
PUMA200 CT-guided needle biopsy
Da vinci -7 degree freedom
-HB imaging system
-Three operating arms
SOCRTAES -Telecollaboration among surgeons in different parts of the globe.
-Can share audio and video
Steady-hand surgery -Filter out unnecessary hand movements
Neurolocate -Fiducial marker
-Intraoperative imaging abilities
Neuromate -6 degree freedom
-Deep brain stimulation
-Safe for biopsies
Pathfinder -6 degree freedom
-Accuracy of sub-millimeter for too delicate procedures.
Neuroarm -Telesurgery
-Intraoperative MRI
Spine assist -2-6 degree freedom
-Can perform fluoroscopic guided surgery
Renaissance -New generation if spine assist for key surgery
iArmS -Minimize hand tremors and fatigability
-Particularly useful for endoscopic procedures
Expert system -Similar to iArmS with improved functioning
-5 degrees of freedom
iSYS 1 robot -Improved instruments positioning
-Shorter setup time
Spinal robotics -Increase accuracy of procedures
Augmented reality system -Image guided surgical system
-provide virtual reality system for young surgeons to practice.
Neurosurgical laser -Increased precision and accuracy of laser techonology.
ROSA -Allow 6 degree of freedom.

Table 1: Salient features of robots used in neurosurgery.

Robotics in neurosurgery

Medical procedures including the cerebrum and spine need a serious level of specialized capability, and automated frameworks might assume a critical part in accomplishing wanted results. All things considered; neurosurgeons have been slower to embrace mechanical technology into their training than in other. However, a few new automated frameworks that have been grown explicitly for neurosurgery have fused innovative upgrades into clinical practice. The utilization of advanced mechanics in neurosurgery can possibly present many advantages, among them more modest cuts, expanded precision during intercession, diminished available occasions, and, thus, lower related procedural expenses. Besides, mechanical frameworks can help specialists in preoperative arranging, executing these undertakings during medical procedure with a serious level of finesse. Robots present the capacity to perform in troublesome, regularly monotonous undertakings, with a serious level of accuracy, making them appropriate for use in a wide scope of neurosurgical mediations. In the area of practical neuro-surgery, automatic frameworks have smoothed out the most common way of embedding’s sEEG terminals by destroying the human needs, understanding [10-12] (Figures 1-3).


Figure 1: NeuRobot (Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan) (image courtesy of K. Hongo).


Maybe as significant as the actual robot, its method for control regardless of whether immediate or far off can essentially affect the nature of consumer device association and ensuing careful results. A few frameworks (like the above-depicted Renaissance) expect no intra operative controls, since they simply execute capacities modified before a medical procedure and don’t straightforwardly interact with the patient. Genuinely employable frameworks, like the da Vinci or NeuroArm, do require elaborate yet instinctive control center for client control. [8] These control boards, in any case, require new abilitieswith new expectations to learn and adapt-for specialists to dominate. Notwithstanding a specialist’s age or traditional educating, assembling and proceeded with training are needed to do protected and compelling a medical procedure with these brackets. A control framework that rather deciphers orders from normal human hand movement to automated mechanical yield with high devotion would appear to be alluring. Such advancements are being developed, dominatingly for cases who have gone through removals. Existing models of the RoboArm (e.g., Unlimited Tomorrow Inc.) highlight explanation at finger and elbow and shoulder joints with appearing accuracy. It is intended for control by a glove or different sensors; to such an extent that the RoboArm mirrors the movement of the patient’s own appendage [6] (Figures 2 and 3).


Figure 2: (A) A ceiling-mounted 1.5-T intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging system and surgical navigation system. (B) The intersection image shows a tumour that is cryptic to the micro surgeon, facilitating the complete removal necessary for cure.


Figure 3: NeuroArm (University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada) in position for microsurgery. At this stage of the procedure the surgical microscope (not shown) is positioned adjacent to the robot base.

Robotic factors

Mechanical robotics elements are requirements set by the production on any piece of the automated framework. The plan of these fractions directs the capacity and use of the framework. As a rule, important elements are in the device and arm parts of the device since they address the nearest communication points of the specialist. Inflexible Tools that are linear, extended, and unbending controllers with a brace on the edge are one of the most well-known apparatuses. Specialists use them in endoscopic medical procedures; however, they additionally utilize the DoF of their own hands to shift them in area. On the other hand, robots require extra DoF in the actual apparatus with the goal that the robot can push the device around in void. The overall imperative is nearly 6 DoF to proceed in an interactive 3-D climate, yet the methodology of straightening instruments is restricted to a straight linear line [11]. Regularly, inflexible devices with different DoF executers are the basic arrangement of gear for automated frameworks, yet architects can in any case make progressions in instrument plan. Intelligent apparatuses are ordinarily utilized in independent automated aid a medical procedure. A concentric cylinder apparatus has a few cylinders settled inside each other and can be lengthened in an extending design. This innovation is valuable when exploring bound regions (e.g., executing Trans nasal invasive sphenoidotomy meant for pituitary removal). One of the difficulties of cerebral growth resection is the area of the cancer; where it very well may be semi surrounded by tricky tissue and the robotics analyze procedures through it. Subsequently, moving in comparative safe regions with these devices is ideal and conceivable. Neuro-surgeons can profit from utilizing these devices and procedures. For instance, envision a little mass straighter and parallel than the hippocampus that requires the specialist to make a way through the fleeting part of the cerebrum. With an automated robotics aid, the specialist could move toward the injury without widely disturbing the cerebrum tissue. Intelligent devices have a few benefits. Its yet in addition present specialized challenges. The estimation of where the pointer is found is generally basic with kinematic or Jacobian computations, yet just if the apparatus is inflexible. Notwithstanding, negligible instrument widths diminish the obtrusiveness of the strategy [13,14].

The difficulties of robotic strategy for endoscopic, minimally invasive, and automated as a medical procedure are comparative. The specialist should have the option to work the apparatuses in restricted spaces. In the event that the apparatus is excessively enormous, it will swarm the space; on the other hand, assuming it is too little, the device will be hard to govern. Consequently, its plan requires a harmony among resilience and size. The sort of pressure the device is under is additionally another boundary that figures out where the stability should be. Pressure is firmly identified with the end point effector since it decides how the specialist should move the instrument (e.g., getting a grip on, testing, pulling). Another significant factor is the mathematical requirements of the device. Apparatus distance across and length decide how adaptable the device can be. In the event that the apparatus is long and has a little breadth, it is moderately simple to deflect. In this manner, the best trouble in planning devices for function in micro-environments is conquering the tradeoff among inflexibility and size. Compactness is contrarily corresponding to the length, making the exact plan well known in some advanced neurosurgical intelligent robots since it can decrease the extent. Neurosurgery includes a minute field with insignificant space to work, which makes difficulties identifying with instrument swarming, setup, and development. The plans of automated arms have alleviated the issue of setups and development, yet flocking work area actually add to the specialized test of difficult situations during medical procedure [7,10]. Despite the fact that specialists have effectively performed analyzations of superficial mind cancers, automated helped endoscopic medical procedure requires more exploration and specialized enhancements to easily get to deep segments of the cerebrum for everyday neuro-surgical applications.

Human and Robot Comprehensive Interactions

Controlling haptic data

The commercial robot technology has evolved for over a century as shown in Figure 2. Among the many aspects improved and introduced, the most crucial part is the haptic feedback system. A typical normal system that specialists depend on is haptic feedback, or feeling of trace, which can assist with deciding how vastly power is being pertained or give data on the outlet being controlled. Proprioception, basically which is the feeling of where one’s associated limits are in expanse, is one more normal component utilized during a medical procedure. During minimally obtrusive and endoscopic medical procedure, long devices weaken and contort the material feeling and proprioception of the specialist. Power Sensing Telesurgery isolates the immediate association among specialist and patient, accordingly eliminating all haptic and proprioception criticism. Haptic input is a typical worry in mechanical technology on the grounds that regularly the specialist should realize what powers are being related to the work area. This is especially significant in neurosurgery in light of the fact that fragile tissues can be forever harmed by inordinate power. Studies have shown that specialists harm limited tissue and apply insignificant power to tissues when power input is gotten during automated helped a medical procedure. Hence, the subject of haptic criticism for mechanical technology is a significant space of examination [13,15].

Some encouraging kinds of power criticism are in strain checks and optical power estimations. For instance, many inventors fostered a micromanipulator equipped for giving clip and pressure criticism to profound situated cancers using deliberately positioned strain checks. Doing as such enables specialists to accumulate data on a cancer before resection. In any case, strain measures are hard to clean and have wires associating them to different gadgets, making analysts seek after elective thoughts. Watanabe fostered a power detecting gadget with a more modest test measurement than the past sensor equipped for giving pressure input by estimating the optical removal of high versatile fiber. Optical uprooting power is a favorable application, and we anticipate that this should turn into the fate of power detecting innovation on the grounds that endoscopic mounted cameras are developing and its capacity for use in insignificantly obtrusive medical procedure is high. Notwithstanding how power is estimated, the primary objective of such innovation is to establish a persuading virtual climate for specialists. Nonetheless, neurosurgery is conceivably a couple of steps behind in haptic leap forwards in view of the tiny necessities of the careful climate. [16-22]


Regular haptic review is the body’s capacity to decide the useful and spatial area of arms and utilizing hands in the absence of optical affirmation and the deficiency of this awareness adds to the expectation to learn and adapt of tele-surgery. Moving our proprioception to an automated arm is simpler to envision than it is to achieve, which clarifies the restricted examination on this subject. Be that as it may, it is an engaging idea to consider on the grounds that appropriately applying proprioceptive haptic input might give something similar “feel” as open a medical procedure with insignificantly obtrusive techniques. Ascertaining complex movements and preparing to work automated frameworks are profoundly reliant upon the utilization of proprioception [22]. Given sufficient opportunity and preparing, a specialist can acquire a level of proprioception while working a mechanical framework. The time it takes to acquire the abilities to smoothly work a mechanical framework is frequently alluded to as the expectation to learn and adapt, which identifies with the likenesses of normal movements with automated controls [17].


Automated helped telesurgery can give the specialist a few benefits, like solace, exactness, endurance, and aptitude. What’s more, movement intensification and sifting can be remembered for mechanical helped negligibly intrusive medical procedure. Since neurosurgery includes an infinitesimal field wherein the specialist should make precise little entry points and resections, the utilization of movement sifting eliminates hand quakes from the specialist by shrewd programming, along these lines permitting the specialist to make more modest resections with bigger applied movements. This, thus, gives a factor of security to the medical procedure. [16,17].

Visualization imaging

Representation is the critical part of effective haptic input and fruitful medical procedure. A few strategies for perception are accessible to specialists, including CT with MRI, fluoroscopy, and endoscopic optics. Independent mechanical help (e.g., stereotactic ground impact) advantages from the utilization of CT and diagnostic MRI in light of the fact that independent robots expect a 3-D prototype of the work area and pre-surgical preparations. Expert or tele-surgery requisitions advantage from endoscopic cameras for Realtime and point of view representation during medical procedure and MRI along with CT perception for pre-surgical techniques. Innovative headways have made endoscopy an appealing alternative for neurosurgeons, especially automated helped insignificantly obtrusive tele-neurosurgery. Endoscopic sharp visual cameras are valuable in telesurgery in light of the fact that they can be adaptable and have high goal. In any case, telesurgery shares comparative representation challenges as endoscopic medical procedure, like focal point hindrance and blood obfuscating, and the way to deal with the work area places restricts on perception and simplicity of control. Representation is significant for specialist work area communication. Since haptic input is restricted, specialists depend on visual criticism singularly for tele-surgery. Visual input is more helpful than other criticism components and, consequently, has gotten the most consideration in medical procedure. Specialists lose a level of depth discernment during activities by attempting to deal with a 3-D climate from a 2-D picture; this deficiency of insight can stretch the span of working time. Subsequently, recent endoscopic plans incorporate stereoscopic functional cameras. A few specialists have supported stereoscopic over monoscopic medical procedures; however, others question their viability By the by, the theme is disputable as stereoscopic perception enjoys likely benefits. Infinitesimal representation is significant in neurosurgery and has potential in mechanical medical procedure. Presently, Neuro arm is fit for micro neurosurgery and has miniature end effectors for its apparatuses. Be that as it may, not all frameworks are versatile to minuscule representation. Maybe,coordinating microsurgery into endoscopic automated frameworks is almost certain with the advancement of micro endoscopy; however doing as such might be hard for insignificantly obtrusive frameworks since they might meddle with the view in the careful field [18-22].

Future pathways Kinematics

A few headings are feasible for mechanical helped negligibly obtrusive medical procedure. Later on, robots might be totally independent, totally reliant, or even a cross breed of these 2 kinds of machines. The thought of a totally independent robot is engaging; however, a few intricacies actually exist. Treatment isn’t general. Life systems and clinical history both contrast from one patient to another. Right now, changing development on request isn’t yet conceivable, and the powerlessness of mechanical frameworks to make such on-request changes make investigating or startling moves an issue. Independent innovation might be later on, yet demanding work is expected to arrive; hence, for the present, independent robots are utilized for stereotactic help or hardware situating alone. Nonetheless, opportunity to get better still exits, including the expansion of subroutines to current independent mechanical frameworks, like injury shutting, cinching, and fundamental control [19,23,24].


Totally reliant mechanical helped a medical procedure has gotten well known, and the eventual fate of ward frameworks will depend on the scaling down of automated devices and the fuse of bended endoscopic working ports. The deficiencies of little, long parts identify with their adaptability, which restricts how little each extension can be. Nonetheless, future bearings may incorporate utilizing a few little mechanical arms to help 2 controlled hands to oblige the restricted powers that they can correlate. For instance, a framework may incorporate a few automated arms: the specialist would regulate 2 of these little arms, and different branches would be customized to help the specialist. All things considered, when the innovation is free, mechanical helped endoscopic medical procedure is probably going to turn into a significant pattern in neurosurgery.


The utilization of mechanical frameworks in neurosurgery might assist with expanding careful exactness and permit specialists to perform more convoluted activities. Nonetheless, our present automated innovation is restricted due to some degree to physical difficulties, so other strength regions have developed a lot quicker than neurosurgery. A few specialized difficulties, including configuration issues and restricted haptic criticism, have dialed back advanced mechanics in the field of neurosurgery, yet analysts keep on dealing with establishing a trustworthy virtual climate that can imitate real medical procedures.

Conflicts of Interest

All authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Citation: Hassan U, Sohail S, Asif MA, Rana H, Rishi AI, et al. (2021) The Coveted Journey of Surgical Robotics in Neurosurgery. Neurol Clin Therapeut J Open 5:006.

Copyright: © 2021 Hassan U, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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