alexa The Effect of Caffeine on Pregnancy-Fact or Myth? | Open Access Journals
ISSN: 2376-127X
Journal of Pregnancy and Child Health
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

The Effect of Caffeine on Pregnancy-Fact or Myth?

Minyahil Alebachew Woldu*

Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia

Corresponding Author:
Minyahil Alebachew Woldu
Addis Ababa University
College of Health Sciences, School of Pharmacy
Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Tel: 251912648527
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: May 13, 2017; Accepted date: June 05, 2017; Published date: June 10, 2017

Citation: Woldu MA (2017) The Effect of Caffeine on Pregnancy-Fact or Myth? J Preg Child Health 4:333. doi:10.4172/2376-127X.1000333

Copyright: © 2017 Woldu MA. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Pregnancy and Child Health

Abstract

Caffeine crosses the placenta and causes a number of complications. This study aims to review the effect of caffeine during pregnancy. Because of ion trapping weak bases that are non-ionized and lipophilic like caffeine diffuse across the placental barrier and become ionized in the more acidic fetal blood. A number of studies have reported the effect of caffeine on pregnancy. Some of the effects are diminishing fetal skeleton growth; risk of low birth weight (LBW); retardation of fetal development and/or intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR); adverse offspring childhood body fat distribution; increased risk of obesity; risk of type two diabetes mellitus; and Increased risk abortion. Even though a number of effects of caffeine are reported to be associated with pregnancy there are only a limited data showing causal association. Hence, avoiding the consumption of coffee, chocolate and tea during pregnancy appears prudent until more reliable evidences are emerging.

Keywords

Caffeine; Pregnancy; Fetal skeleton growth

Introduction

Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world [1]. An easy access to products containing caffeine due to its presence in drugs, coffee, tea and chocolate makes it widely consumed by the general population, including pregnant women [2,3].

Caffeine is an alkaloid [3] that can block adenosine receptors [4]. The adenosine is one of the major endogenous neuromodulator that can inhibit the overactive excitatory neurotransmission [5] and therefore, the stimulatory effect of caffeine is mainly due to antagonism of adenosine actions [1].

Caffeine crosses the placenta and has a prolonged metabolism in pregnant women (15.08 h half-life) compared with non-pregnant women (4.71 h half-life). The objective of this review is to overview the effect of caffeine during pregnancy; and thereby to forward the current information to the scientific community.

Mechanism of Fetal Toxicity

One of the mechanisms that can lead to prolonged effects of drugs in the fetal compartment is via ion trapping. Ion trapping occurs because the fetal plasma pH is more acidic than the maternal plasma, causing weak bases (e.g. usually nonionized and lipophilic substances such as caffeine) to diffuse across the placental barrier and become ionized in the more acidic fetal blood [6], resulting the compound to pass to offspring through the placental barrier and to cause a number of complications [1]. Some of the complications of prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) are reduction in the formation, growth, and mass of bone by targeting mesenchymal stem cells that are responsible for generating the entire fetal skeleton [3]; risk of low birth weight (LBW) [7]; retardation of fetal development [8] or intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) [9]; adverse offspring childhood body fat distribution [10]; increased risk of obesity [11,12]; potentially abnormal glucose homeostasis to result in increased risk of type to diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the offspring adulthood [13] and Increase the risk of pregnancy loss or abortion [14].

Threshold of Toxicity

Reducing the consumption of caffeinated coffee to 180 mg of caffeine, which is approximately equivalent to 2 cups per day after 16 weeks’ of gestation, has been reported to cause no effect on birth weight [15]. Some even reported that it is safer for the pregnancy at lower than this dose [16]. However, the metabolism of caffeine is greatly influenced by the stage of pregnancy and at third trimester, its metabolism reduced and cause increased serum level of the active metabolites including theophyline [17].

Consuming more than 300 mg of caffeine per day has been associated with a clinically trivial, and statistically insignificant (less than 1 ounce), reduction in birth weight, compared to women consumed no caffeine during pregnancy [15]. Higher maternal caffeine intake (>300 mg) has also associated with a higher risk of pregnancy loss [18]. Nursing mothers should also drink coffee sparingly and immediately and avoid coffee or caffeinated beverages for at least 4 h prior to breastfeeding to minimize the infant’s exposure to caffeine.

Benefits from PCE

PCE and early commencement of caffeine in preterm infant with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) has been associated with improved health circumstances and survival [19]. The frequency of severe intra ventricular hemorrhage and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was also lower and the length of hospitalization was shorter in infants receiving early caffeine therapy [20] (Table 1).

Estimate your daily caffeine intake
Sr. No. Coffee source Volume in OZ Strength in mg
1 Starbucks Grande Coffee 16 400
2 Starbucks House Blend Coffee 16 259
3 Dr. Pepper 12 37
4 7 Eleven Big Gulp Diet Coke 32 124
5 7 Eleven Big Gulp Coca-Cola 32 92
6 Ben and Jerry’s Coffee Buzz Ice Cream 8 72
7 Baker’s chocolate 1 26
8 Green tea 6 40
9 Black tea 6 45
10 Excedrin capsule 65
1 OZ=28.349 g=29.574 mL    

Table 1: Showing description of coffee source type with its approximate caffeine strength.

Conclusion

A number of studies showed the effect of caffeine on pregnancy but with only a limited data of causal association. Hence, avoiding the consumption of coffee, chocolate and tea during pregnancy appears prudent until more reliable evidences are emerging.

Acknowledgement

MAW has conceptualized the paper, wrote the first draft, reviewed and added substantive edits to the paper.

References

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Recommended Conferences

Article Usage

  • Total views: 258
  • [From(publication date):
    June-2017 - Sep 19, 2017]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 229
  • PDF downloads :29
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords