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Journal of Plant Genetics and Breeding - Wheat breeding in Croatia

Journal of Plant Genetics and Breeding
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  • Editorial   
  • J Plant Genet Breed 2017, Vol 1(1): e103

Wheat breeding in Croatia

Valentina Spanic*, Kresimir Dvojkovic, Dario Novoselovic and Georg Drezner
Department for breeding and genetics of small cereal crops, Agricultural Institute Osijek, Juzno predgradje 17, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
*Corresponding Author: Valentina Spanic, Department for breeding and genetics of small cereal crops Agricultural Institute Osijek, Juzno Predgradje 17, 31000 Osijek, Croatia, Tel: +385 31 515 563, Email:

Received: 20-Oct-2017 / Accepted Date: 25-Oct-2017 / Published Date: 05-Nov-2017


Wheat is important staple in the Republic of Croatia, due to its use in nutrition (high protein and fiber) and economic value. In the period from 1930 to 1939 the lowest wheat production occurred (4,40,000 t, with average yield of 1.1 t ha-1). The highest wheat production was in the early 90s of the last century (1,602 200 t; 5.0 t ha-1). In those years in the Republic of Croatia, wheat was produced on the area of more than 3,00,000 ha. Despite sharp decline in the period from 2000 to 2012, wheat was still one of the leading cereal crops in Croatia (from 1,46,253 to 1,86,949 ha) [1,2]. In 1957 Italian varieties have been imported (San Pastore, Leonardo, Libellula and Abodanza). Due to winter sensitivity of Italian varieties, in 1963 the varieties of the former Soviet Union (Bezostaja 1, Aurora, Caucasus, Jubilejnaja, etc.) were imported, which had winter resistance but also a longer vegetation period which was unsuitable for Croatian growing areas. Varieties from both introductions were used in crosses in the past.

The most important growing areas for bread wheat are located in East part of Croatia (Slavonia and Baranja County). Apart from this region where the highest yield could be achieved, wheat is also cultivated in central south part of Croatia, including more poor soils, which decreases average yields.

In Croatia wheat yield was increased from past till now (Figure 1). The increase of yield was in turn the consequence of the decrease of plant height and of higher grain number per square meters of modern cultivars, as in the other countries across Europe [3-5]. By selection for higher yield indirectly varieties for lower protein were chosen, which could be explained by increased amount of carbohydrates [6]. Depending on the quality, Croatian wheat grain has 10-17% of protein content; test weight can vary from 60 to 85 kg hl-1 and 1000 kernel weight from 25 to 55 g [7]. In general, higher protein content can indicate flours with higher water absorption, stronger and more extensible dough properties and better baking performance, and also quality of the flour is examined by the rheological properties of dough (farinograph and extensograph) regularly. As regards the allelic composition of the Croatian winter wheat varieties, three patterns were observed at the Glu-A1 locus (N, 1, 2), at Glu-B1 (7+8, 7+9) and at Glu-D1 (2+12, 5+10) [8,9].


Figure 1: Yield increase and protein decrease from 1905 till today.


  1. Annual Statistical Yearbook RH (2009): Croatian Central Bureau of Statistics in RH.
  2. Annual Statistical Yearbook RH (2013): Croatian Central Bureau of Statistics in RH.
  3. Canevara MG, Romani M, Corbellini M, Perenzin M, and Borghi B (1994) Evolutionary trends in morphological, physiological, agronomical and qualitative traits of Triticumaestivum L. cultivars bread in Italy since 1990. Eur J Agron. 3:175-185.
  4. Siddique KHM, Belford RK, Perry MW, Tennant D (1989) Growth, development and light interception of old and modern wheat cultivars in a Mediterranean-type environment. Aust J Agric Res. 40:473-487.
  5. Brancourt-Hulmel M, Doussinault G, Lecomte C, Be´ rard, P, Le BuanecB, et al . (2003) Genetic Improvement of agronomic traits of winter wheat cultivars released in France from 1946 to 1992. Crop Sci. 43:37-45.
  6. Kibite S, Evans LE (1984) Causes of negative correlations between grain yield and grain protein concentration in common wheat. Euphytica 33:801-810.
  7. Spanic V, Horvat D, Lutrov, K, Tucak M, Drezner G (2017) Quality charasteristics of some winter wheat varieties in 2014/2015. Agronomskiglasnik 78:271-280.
  8. Horvat D, Drezner G, Å imic G, Mijic A, Magdic D (2008) Quality of wheat cultivars created at the Agricultural institute Osijek in relation to high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) composition. Period biol. 110:263-268.
  9. Horvat D, Drezner G, Å imic G, Dvojkovic K (2006) Determination of wheat storage proteins by RP-HPLC method. Poljoprivreda 12:42-47.

Citation: Spanic V, Dvojkovic K, Novoselovic D, Drezner G (2017) Wheat breeding in Croatia. J Plant Genet Breed 1: e103.

Copyright: ©2017 Spanic V, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.