Italy, commanding a long Mediterranean coastline, has left a powerful mark on Western culture and cuisine. Its capital, Rome, is home to the Vatican as well as landmark art and ancient ruins. Other major cities include Florence, with Renaissance treasures such as Michelangelo’s "David" and its leather and paper artisans; Venice, the sinking city of canals; and Milan, Italy’s fashion capital.
Italy consists of a mountainous peninsula in southern Europe extending into the Mediterranean Sea and includes the islands of Sicily, Sardinia, and about 70 other smaller islands. The Alps form Italy's border with France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia. Most of Italy has warm, dry summers and mild winters, with northern Italy experiencing colder, wetter winters. There are some notable active volcanoes: Vesuvius (near Naples), Etna (on Sicily), and Stromboli (north of Sicily).
Italy is the world’s ninth biggest economy. Its economic structure relies mainly on services and manufacturing. The services sector accounts for almost three quarters of total GDP and employs around 65% of the country’s total employed people. Within the service sector, the most important contributors are the wholesale, retail sales and transportation sectors. Industry accounts for a quarter of Italy’s total production and employs around 30% of the total workforce. Manufacturing is the most important sub-sector within the industry sector. The country’s manufacturing is specialized in high-quality goods and is mainly run by small- and medium-sized enterprises. Most of them are family-owned enterprises. Agriculture contributes the remaining share of total GDP and it employs around 4.0% of the total workforce.
Research and development expenditure (% of gdp) in italy was last measured at 1.27 in 2016, according to the world bank. Expenditures for research and development are current and capital expenditures (both public and private) on creative work undertaken systematically to increase knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture, and society, and the use of knowledge for new applications. R&d covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development. This page has the latest recorded value, an historical data chart and related indicators for research and development expenditure (% of gdp) in italy.
Pathology research Italy is more deeply rooted in the tradition of Plant Pathology, as it originated from the Experimental Station for Plant Pathology founded in 1887, with the aim of providing Italy-South Centre of an institution similar to the one already existing in Pavia (Italian Cryptogamic Laboratory), capable of answering to the Ministry of Agriculture and farmers questions about the phytosanitary problems. It deals with the protection of agricultural and forestry plants against biotic (bacteria, fungi, viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas, etc..) and abiotic (physiological disorders, adverse climatic conditions) agents. It studies the plant-pathogen interaction, pathogens populations epidemiology and characterization by both traditional and biomolecular methods for disease control. It researches sources of genetic resistance and tolerance to pests to be applied to the development of resistent varieties / lines through the use of conventional and biotechnological methods. It studies the crops protection under conventional production methods, integrated and organic farming. It provides for the establishment of diagnostic methods useful in the prevention of diseases; it defines the techniques and methods of treatment which may minimize the occurrence of pesticide residues in foods and in the environment. It provides for the establishment of rehabilitation techniques for the production of propagation material certified pathogens free. Pathology journals Italy reveals the scope & subject of the topic which deals with the study of diseases in general, their diagnosis, treatments, remedies and includes the study of a wide range of aspects in relation to the field.