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ISSN: 2157-7617

Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change
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  • Review Article   
  • J Earth Sci Clim Change 2015, Vol 6(1): 250
  • DOI: 10.4172/2157-7617.1000250

Electromagnetic Pre-earthquake Precursors: Mechanisms, Data and Models-A Review

Petraki E1, Nikolopoulos D2*, Nomicos C3, Stonham J1, Cantzos D4, Yannakopoulos P2 and Kottou S5
1Brunel University, Department of Engineering and Design, , Kingston Lane, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH, London, UK
2TEI of Piraeus, Department of Electronic Computer Systems Engineering, , Petrou Ralli and Thivon 250, GR-12244 Aigaleo, Athens, Greece
3TEI of Athens, Department of Electronic Engineering, , Agiou Spyridonos, GR-12243, Aigaleo, Athens, Greece
4TEI of Piraeus, Department of Automation Engineering, , Petrou Ralli and Thivon 250, GR-12244 Aigaleo, Greece
5University of Athens, Medical School, Department of Medical Physics, , Mikras Asias 75, GR-11527 Goudi, Athens, Greece
*Corresponding Author : Nikolopoulos D, TEI of Piraeus, Department of Electronic Computer Systems Engineering, Petrou Ralli And Thivon 250, GR-12244 Aigaleo, Athens, Greece, Tel: +0030-210-5381560, Fax: +0030-210-5381436, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Nov 16, 2014 / Accepted Date: Jan 03, 2015 / Published Date: Jan 12, 2015

Abstract

This paper is a survey of pre-earthquake short-term electromagnetic precursors. Extensive studies were carried out the last decades in analysis of electromagnetic emissions from 10-3 Hz up to MHz. These signals were analyzed through visual, statistical and chaotic techniques. The paper presents cumulative elements from scientific investigations performed during the last 40 years in this area. Physical models have also been developed for the interpretation of production and propagation of electromagnetic radiation during the fracture process. The Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) fracture-re-lated emissions attempted to be explained via magneto-hydrodynamic, piezomagnetic and electroki-netic effects whereas for the kHz-MHz observations the model of asperities was proposed.

Keywords: Electromagnetic emissions; Earthquake precursors; Ultra low frequency

Citation: Petraki E, Nikolopoulos D, Nomicos C, Stonham J, Cantzos D, et al. (2015) Electromagnetic Pre-earthquake Precursors: Mechanisms, Data and Models-A Review. J Earth Sci Clim Change 6: 250. Doi: 10.4172/2157-7617.1000250

Copyright: © 2015 Petraki E, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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