Pain and Placebo*Corresponding Author: Rosy Dunham, Anaesthetic Trainee, West Midlands Central Deanery, UK 23 Newbury Close, Abbeyfield, Halesowen, Birmingham, B62 8SW, UK, Email: [email protected]
Received Date: Feb 18, 2021 / Accepted Date: Mar 26, 2021 / Published Date: Apr 02, 2021
Citation: Kapur S, Dunham R, Balasubramanian S (2021) Pain and Placebo. J Pain Relief 10: 370.
Copyright: © 2021 Kapur S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Expectation of pain relief can reduce pain and prior positive experiences increase the analgesic responses to subsequent placebo. Placebo effect is the positive beneficial response after receiving a placebo. Nocebo effects are the negative responses after receiving a placebo, which are usually minor, but can be life threatening. Endogenous neuropeptides such as opioids, dopamine, serotonin and cannabinoids are released in placebo analgesia. Part of the placebo response is mediated by intrinsic cognitive factors, alone or in combination with extrinsic environmental factors.