Predictors of Poor Anthropometric Status among Children Under Two Years of Age in Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia, 2015; Cross- Sectional Study
- *Corresponding Author:
- Yinager Workineh Birhanu
Department of Nursing
Arba Minch University
Arba Minch, Ethiopia
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: November 30, 2015 Accepted date: December 14, 2015 Published date: December 21, 2015
Citation: Birhanu YW, Endris AY (2015) Predictors of Poor Anthropometric Status among Children Under Two Years of Age in Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia, 2015; Cross-Sectional Study. Epidemiology (sunnyvale) 5:209. doi:10.4172/2161-1165.1000209
Copyright: © 2015 Birhanu YW, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Introduction: Worldwide over 195 million under five children are affected by malnutrition; 90% of them live in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. The prevalence of underweight children under five years of age in different regions of the world is expected to decline, but in sub-Saharan Africa, it will increase from 24 million children in 1990 to 43 million in 2015. Ethiopia is among the Sub Saharan nations with at least 53% of mortality can be attributed directly or indirectly to malnutrition. Therefore the aim of this study is to assess nutritional status and its determinants in the selected setting. Methods and materials: Institutional based cross sectional study design was applied in four hundred nineteen children aged 0–24 months with their mothers using random sampling techniques. A structured questionnaire was administered to mothers in health centers growth monitoring, and immunization department. Information on health, household socio-economic status, child feeding practices and anthropometric measurement was gathered. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to identify potential determinants of poor anthropometric status, and ethical issue was assured by using assent form. Results: The mean Z-score for weight-for-height was 46.3%, for height-for-age was 16.5%, and for weight-forage was 16.7%. There were different factors for child poor nutritional status. In these regard, children from mothers attending above grade 12 were less likely under weight as compared with children with illiterate mother [AOR=0.344, (CI 95%: 0.123, 0.669)]. Children from family earned 3000 and above birr were less likely under weight as compared with a family who earned below 500 birr [AOR=0.974(CI 95%: 0.263, 0.605)]. Child didn’t get breast milk at any time was more underweight as compared with child who got breast milk at any time [AOR=4.723, (CI 95%: 1.193, 18.696)]. Underweight was more likely among children in the age group of 6-12 month and 12-24 months [AOR=3.494, (CI 95%: 1.471, 8.301)] and [AOR=1.734, (CI 95%: 1.123, 3.892)] as compared to age group of 0-6 months. Children with EBF duration for below six month were 4 times more likely underweight [AOR=3.685, (CI 95%: 1.389, 34.917)] as compared to duration of EBF for more than 12 months. Factors for wasting of under two children were status of child, time of bathing of child, and age of child. The analysis showed that twin children were 2 times more likely to be wasted as compared to singleton children [AOR=1.666, (CI 95%: 1.448, 6.198)]. Bathing of child after 24 hours was less likely wasted as compared with children who bathed within 24 hrs [AOR=0.510, (CI 95%: 0.285, 0.914)]. Wasting was three times more likely among children in the age group 12-24 months [AOR=2.421, (CI 95%: 1.910, 6.443)] as compared to age group of 0-6 months. After adjustment for all potential confounders in this study, there was evidence of an association between child sex and stunting of children as figured by [AOR=1.710, (CI 95%: 1.083, 2.701)]. Conclusions: This finding indicated that there was lower level of underweight, and wasting, and high level of stunting of children. Poor nutritional status of children like underweight, stunting and wasting was determined by different predictors. Educational status, monthly income, providing milk at any time, child age and duration of exclusive feeding were predictor of underweight of child. Moreover, status of child, time of bathing of newborn, and age of child were significantly associated with wasting. Stunting was determined by sex of the child. Therefore, the study concludes that no single factor affected nutritional status, rather many factor were interwoven to affect the occurrence of poor nutritional status in those age group children in this settings.