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Weight Loss is Associated with Changes in Gut Microbiome: A Randomized, Cross-Over Trial Comparing a Mediterranean and a Low-Fat Vegan Diet in Overweight Adults| Abstract
ISSN: 2165-7904

Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
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  • Research Article   
  • J Obes Weight Loss Ther 11: 443,
  • DOI: 10.4172/2165-7904.1000443

Weight Loss is Associated with Changes in Gut Microbiome: A Randomized, Cross-Over Trial Comparing a Mediterranean and a Low-Fat Vegan Diet in Overweight Adults

Hana Kahleova1*, Emilie Rembert1, Jihad Alwarith1, Amber Nowak1, Melissa Agnello2, Robynne Chutkan3, Richard Holubkov4 and Neal D. Barnard1,5
1Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, Washington DC, USA
2Biome Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA
3Assistant Professor, Department of Gastroenterology, Georgetown MedStar Hospital, Washington DC, USA Director, Digestive Center for Wellness, Washington DC, USA
4School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
5Adjunct faculty, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA
*Corresponding Author : Hana Kahleova, Director of Clinical Research, Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, Washington DC, USA, Tel: 2025277379, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: May 10, 2021 / Accepted Date: May 24, 2021 / Published Date: May 31, 2021

Abstract

Background: Mediterranean and vegan diets improve body weight and gut microbiome composition. The aim of this study was to compare both diets head-to-head.

Methods: Randomized cross-over trial, conducted February-October 2019. Sixty-two overweight adults were assigned to each diet for 16-week periods in random order, separated by a 4-week washout. Body weight was the primary outcome. Secondary measures included changes in gut microbiome which was measured using 16S rRNA sequencing.

Results: Body weight decreased on the vegan compared with the Mediterranean diet (treatment effect -6.0 kg [95% CI -7.5 to -4.5]; p<0.001). The relative abundance of Bacteriodetes decreased (p<0.001 for both diets) and Eubacteria increased on both diets (p<0.001 for the Mediterranean and p=0.009 for the vegan diet). The relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae increased (p=0.03), the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio increased (p=0.04) and the butyrate-producing bacteria decreased (p=0.02) on the Mediterranean diet. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria decreased (p<0.001), and Enterobacteria and Ruminococcus increased on the vegan diet (p=0.04 and p<0.001, respectively). Changes in body weight correlated positively with changes in relative abundance of Firmicutes both on the Mediterranean (r=+0.36; p=0.01) and the vegan diet (r=+0.41; p<0.001) and with changes in relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae both on the Mediterranean (r=+0.40; p<0.001) and the vegan diet (r=+0.44; p<0.001). In addition, the changes in body weight correlated negatively with changes in relative abundance of Enterobacteria on the Mediterranean diet (r=-0.32; p=0.02) and Eubacteria on the vegan diet (r=- 0.49; p<0.001).

Conclusions: A low-fat vegan diet led to a greater weight loss compared with a Mediterranean diet. This may be partly explained by the difference in gut microbiome composition.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03698955.

Keywords: Diet; Gut microbiome; Mediterranean; Nutrition; Vegan; Weight

Citation: Kahleova H, Rembert E, Alwarith J, Nowak A, Agnello M, et al. (2021) Weight Loss is Associated with Changes in Gut Microbiome: A Randomized, Cross-Over Trial Comparing a Mediterranean and a Low-Fat Vegan Diet in Overweight Adults. J Obes Weight Loss Ther 11: 443. Doi: 10.4172/2165-7904.1000443

Copyright: © 2021 Kahleova H, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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