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Saudi Arabia is a desert country encompassing most of the Arabian Peninsula, with Red Sea and Persian (Arabian) Gulf coastlines Known as the birthplace of Islam. it’s home to the religion’s 2 most sacred mosques: Masjid al-Haram, in Mecca, destination of the annual Hajj pilgrimage, and Medina’s Masjid an-Nabawi, burial site of the prophet Muhammad. Riyadh, the capital, is a skyscraper-filled metropolis. Saudi Arabia is bounded by seven countries and three bodies of water. To the west, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea form a coastal border of almost 1,800 kilometers that extends south to Yemen and follows a mountain ridge for approximately 320 kilometers to the vicinity of Najran. This section of the border with Yemen was demarcated in 1934 and is one of the few clearly defined borders with a neighboring country. The Saudi border running southeast from Najran, however, is still undetermined. Saudi Arabia was among the top 40 countries investing in research and development (R&D) areas in 2014, local media said, quoting a report by Gulf Petrochemicals & Chemicals Association (GPCA). The major R&D research area in Saudi Arabia are Diabetes Research, Diagnostics to find cure etc. With one-quarter of the world’s hydrocarbon reserves, Saudi Arabia is still reliant on oil—hydrocarbons account for almost 90% of the Kingdom’s total exports and 75% of government income.
In the field of science, this country has established infrastructure for advanced oil and petroleum technology & Research. Large companies are leading efforts to drive innovation in the fields of energy and petrochemicals, having established R&D centers across Saudi Arabia (Thuwal, Dhahran and Riyadh). Saudi Arabia contributing relatively more research in the field of pharmaceutical science and numerous pharmaceutical science journals are published from Saudi Arabia with good reputation. Several leading Institution in the country including Al-Baha University, Al Jouf University, Islamic University of Madinah, Jazan University, King Abdulaziz University and others are spearheading the medical research).