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Description of the country:
Saudi Arabia is the birthplace of Islam and home to Islam's two holiest shrines in Mecca and Medina. It is located in the Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, north of Yemen. It is the active member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and OPEC.
Geography of the country:
Saudi Arabia's geography is mostly covered by the Arabian Desert and associated semi-desert and shrub land. The coastline length is 2,640 km. The climate is harsh, dry desert with great temperature extremes. The day-time temperatures are very high and a sharp temperature drop at night can be observed. Average summer temperatures are around 45°C - 54 °C. Most of the plants are small herbs and shrubs requiring little water. The date palm is widespread.
Status of economy, research and development:
Saudi Arabia has an oil-based economy with strong government controls over major economic activities. It possesses about 16% of the world's proven petroleum reserves, ranks as the largest exporter of petroleum, and plays a leading role in OPEC. Saudi Arabia is encouraging the growth of the private sector in order to diversify its economy and to employ more Saudi nationals. Agriculture – products like wheat, barley, tomatoes, melons, dates, citrus; mutton, chickens, eggs, milk and Industries like crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic petrochemicals, ammonia, industrial gases, sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), cement, fertilizer, plastics, metals, commercial ship repair, commercial aircraft repair, construction plays an important role in maintaining economy status.
Status about the different subjects in which extensive research is going on:
In Peace, Physics, Medicine and Chemistry, Saudi Arabia produced 11 Nobel laureates so far. Large number if Universities are offering Toxicology research in Saudi Arabia, King Saud University, Cairo University, Alexandria University are the top universities for pharmacology, toxicology and pharmaceutics in the Arab region. . Numerous Toxicology Journals are published from Saudi Arabia with good reputation. Several leading Institution in the country including Mansoura University, King Abdulaziz University, Ain Shams University and others are spearheading the toxicology research in Saudi Arabia.