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Lactic Acid Bacteria and Its Use in Probiotics | OMICS International
ISSN: 2155-6199
Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation

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Lactic Acid Bacteria and Its Use in Probiotics

Bharti Mattu1 and Ashish Chauhan2*
1Department of Biotechnology, Punjabi University, Patiala-147002, Punjab, India
2National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Punjab, India
Corresponding Author : Ashish Chauhan
National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Punjab, India
Tel: +91-9464616773
E-mail: [email protected]
Received October 23, 2013; Accepted October 24, 2013; Published October 31, 2013
Citation: Mattu B, Chauhan A (2013) Lactic Acid Bacteria and Its Use in Probiotics. J Bioremed Biodeg 4:e140. doi:10.4172/2155-6199.1000e140
Copyright: © 2013 Mattu B, et al. This is an open-a ccess article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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The Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) comprise of Gram positive, acid resistantant, generally non-sporulating, non-respiring rod or cocci that remain associated by their common metabolic and physiological characteristics including degradation of carbohydrate with the production of lactic acid. The genera that comprise the LAB are at its core Oenococcus, Sporolactobacillus, Teragenococcus, Vagococcus, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus as well as peripheral Aerococcus, Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, and Weisella. Their nutritional needs restrict to the environments in which LAB persist. The mouth and intestinal tract of animals have two such environments, where the lactic acid bacterium Enterococcus faecalis lives. Other environments include plant leaves (Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus), and decaying organic material. The industrial importance of the LAB is further evidenced by their Generally Regarded as Safe (GRAS) status, due to their ubiquitous appearance in food and their contribution to the healthy microflora of human mucosal surfaces.
The lactic acid can have potential application in bio-medical treatment. Some of the uses are in managing lactose intolerance, prevention of colon cancer, lowering cholesterol, lowering blood pressure, improving immune function and preventing infections, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, reducing inflammation, irritable bowel syndrome and colitis, managing urino-genital health. It reduces risk of certain cancers, detoxify carcinogens, suppress tumors, lower serum cholesterol concentrations, reduce blood pressure in hypertensives, treat allergies as atopic eczema have in pregnant women and newborns, synthesize nutrients, increase nutrient bioavailability, improve urinogenital health, optimize effects of vaccines, treat milk allergies, improve mineral absorption. Lactic acid bacteria have a high potential as probiotics. A lot of studies support the result yet a lot remains to be explored. The remedy for some serious diseases that are complex and threatens the life of the patient still needs other lactic acid bacteria to serve as probiotics and cure the disease.
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