China is an Asian country, officially known as the People's Republic of China (PRC) considered as the world's most populous country with more than 1.381 billion inhabitants. Beijing is the capital city of china which is also the seat for the ruling government i.e., ‘The Communist Party’. It prevails its jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), two mostly self-governing administrative territories (Hong Kong and Macau), and claims sovereignty over the Republic of China (island of Taiwan).
China lies in the Eastern Asia and considered as the second largest state by area covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometers of the landscape. In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, there are extensive and densely populated alluvial plains, while on the edges of the Inner Mongolian plateau in the north, broad grasslands predominate. Southern China is dominated by hills and low mountain ranges, while the central-east hosts the deltas of China's two major rivers, the Yellow River and the Yangtze River. Other major rivers include the Xi, Mekong, Brahmaputra and Amur. The Himalayan ranges lies to the west of the territory. The Mount Everest lies on the Sino-Nepalese border. China's climate is mainly dominated by dry seasons and wet monsoons, which lead to the diverse climatic conditions with marking temperature differences between winter and summer.
China is the world's second-largest economy by nominal total GDP and largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). Agriculture is an important economic sector of China, accounting for 15% of GDP and employing over 300 million farmers. China ranks first in worldwide farm output, primarily producing rice, wheat, potato, sorghum, peanut, tea, millet, barley, cotton and oilseed. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defence budget. China is rapidly developing its education system with an emphasis on science, mathematics and engineering and it produced more Ph.D., engineering graduates, BSc graduates and laureates than any other country. China heads for top of world in R&D spending with an investment of 2.05% of its GDP on research and development, passing its target of 2% as reported by the OECD. China is also the world's second-largest publisher of scientific papers, leading with many international scientific journals. Chinese technology companies such as Huawei and Lenovo have become world leaders in telecommunications and personal computing, and Chinese supercomputers are consistently ranked at the topmost in the world records. China is furthermore experiencing a significant growth in the use of industrial robots.
China occupies nearly one fourth of Asia’s land-mass. Though 15% of its total land area is cultivated, it is the largest agricultural producer in the world. The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) is the nation’s foremost research institution in natural sciences and technologies. CAS is administered by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST). Funding Organizations and Associations such as the Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Program (ASTIP), Knowledge Innovation Program (KIP), the Philosophy and Social Science Innovation Program (PSSIP) etc. encourages crop science, horticulture science, animal science, veterinary medicine, agricultural resources and environment, agricultural mechanization and engineering, agro-product quality, safety and processing, and agricultural information and economics. Few research and educational institutes like Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), China Agricultural University (CAU), Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST) Nanjing University of Agriculture (NJAU) etc. provides insight into the agricultural development along with basic sciences, economics, management, law, education, history and philosophy.