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ISSN: 2155-6199
Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation

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DNA Shuffling and the Production of Novel Enzymes and Microorganisms for Effective Bioremediation and Biodegradation Process

Sayed K Goda*
Anti-Doping Lab-Qatar, Protein Engineering unit, Doha, Qatar
Corresponding Author : Sayed K Goda
Professor/Senior Scientist
Anti-Doping Lab-Qatar, Protein Engineering unit
Doha, Qatar
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: June 22, 2012; Accepted: June 23, 2012; Published: June 25, 2012
Citation: Goda SK (2012) DNA Shuffling and the Production of Novel Enzymes and Microorganisms for Effective Bioremediation and Biodegradation Process. J Bioremed Biodeg 3:e116. doi:10.4172/2155-6199.1000e116
Copyright: © 2012 Goda SK. This is an open-a ccess article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Naturally occurring enzymes are not optimised to work on industrial scale. The application of enzymes as biocatalysts on such scale requires the availability of enzymes with high activity, specificity and stability at higher temperature and high pH and other process conditions. The ever-increasing demand of enzymes and microorganisms for environmental bioremediation requires the production of large quantities of such enzymes at low cost. With is in mind, directed evolution is very effective in providing new traits of enzymes and microorganism which can fulfil these extra requirements.
DNA shuffling, also known as molecular breeding, is a technology that enables the generation of large libraries of novel genes from which improved variants can be selected based on functional properties. Using this technology, proteins can be improved without structural information by randomly mutating the whole genes; the resulting library can be expressed and screened for variants exhibiting altered specificity [1]. Directed evolution can also be used to generate desirable mutants from which sequence alternation can be correlated with function. A significant advantage of this method is that information on neither the structure nor the catalytic mechanism is required to guide the evolution of enzymes.
DNA shuffling has been used in many aspects of biological systems, such as protein engineering [2], vaccine development [3], biochemical production [4], and metabolic engineering [5]. Family DNA shuffling was also perform on a group of twenty cytokines to produce novel interferon [6].
Production of novel enzyme variants to efficiently biodegrade pollutants has been successfully accomplished by DNA shuffling [7-12].
The need for super-active enzymes, enzymes with new traits and recombinant microorganisms for biodegradation and bioremediation for cleaner and safer environment could not be over stated. Directed evolution has rapidly become the method of choice for developing enzymes and microorganism-based biocatalysts to perform such process. In addition to the directed evolution the capabilities of rational design will lead to more powerful biocatalyst design strategies that combine the best of both approaches. Advances in other related fields such as bioinformatics, functional genomics, and functional proteomics will also extend the applications of directed evolution, rational design or a combination of both to many more industrial biocatalysts and much efficient biodegradation and bioremediation process.
 
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