Brazil officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil), is the fifth largest country by both area and population. Brazil is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language, and the only one in the Americas.
Brazil’s geography is a fascinating one. As the home of the acclaimed Amazon Rainforest, as well as the Brazilian Highlands and vast stretches of coastline, this South American country continues to impress visitors in its natural splendour and complexity. Brazil has a total surface area of 8,514,877 square kilometres (3,287,612 square miles) of which 8,459,417 square kilometres (3,266,199 square miles) is land and 55 460 square kilometres (or 21,410 square miles) is water.
Brazil has the world's seventh largest economy by nominal GDP, and the seventh largest by purchasing power parity. The Brazilian economy is characterized by moderately free markets and an inward-oriented economy. Brazil's economy is the largest of Latin America and the second largest in the Western Hemisphere. From 2000 to 2012, Brazil was one of the fastest-growing major economies in the world, with an average annual GDP growth rate of over 5%, with its economy in 2012 surpassing that of the United Kingdom, making Brazil the world's sixth largest economy. However, Brazil's economy growth has decelerated in 2013 and had almost no liquid growth throughout 2014, and the country's economy is expected to shrink by 4% in 2015.
Engineering Research is funded in Brazil through different developmental systems and institutions, which are linked directly or indirectly to Brazilian ministries. Institutional financing, for example, comes from the National Scientific and Technological Development Fund (FNDCT). Some public universities also have their own agencies, foundations and separate funds, which are managed with the purpose of supporting their faculties and students with regard to research and development of technological innovations. There is also, to a lesser extent, financing from private initiative, coming from companies and the industrial sector.