China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is the world's most populous state, with a population of over 1.381 billion. The PRC is governed by the Communist Party, with its seat of government in the capital city of Beijing. It exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), two mostly self-governing special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau), and claims sovereignty over the Republic of China (island of Taiwan) off the southeast coast of the mainland.
Located in Southeast Asia along the coastline of the Pacific Ocean, China is the world's third largest country, after Russia and Canada. With an area of 9.6 million square kilometers and a coastline of 18,000 kilometers, its shape on the map is like a rooster. China is bordered by 14 countries - Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Burma, India, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakstan, Mongolia, and Russia. Marine-side neighbors include eight countries - North Korea, Korea, Japan, Philippines, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam.
China's socialist market economy is the world's second largest economy by nominal GDP, and the world's largest economy by purchasing power parity according to the IMF, although China's National Bureau of Statistics rejects this claim. Until 2015 China was the world's fastest-growing major economy, with growth rates averaging 10% over 30 years. Due to historical and political facts of China's developing economy, China's public sector accounts for a bigger share of the national economy than the burgeoning private sector. China is a global hub for manufacturing, and is the largest manufacturing economy in the world as well as the largest exporter of goods in the world. China is also the world's fastest growing consumer market and second largest importer of goods in the world. China is a net importer of services products.
The China government supports strategic science, technology and innovation collaboration of mutual benefit to Australia and China. This builds critical mass in areas of strategic priority and supports enduring partnerships between world and Chinese engineering researchers. The China government will also facilitate activities that encourage the application and commercialisation of research outcomes to the mutual benefits with world's chineese research experience. In 2014, the china goverment has extended in recognition of the long-standing and highly successful nature of the Australia-China joint science and research relationship. This extension, of AUD$10 million over four years from 2014-15 builds on over thirty years of bilateral cooperation on science and technology and an earlier commitment of $9 million to establish funding in engineering sector Government.