Japan is an island country surrounded by Pacific Ocean located in the East Asia. The name denotes Sun’s origin and is often called as ‘Land of the Rising Sun’. Its capital is Tokyo known for its Skyscrapers and Pop culture.
Japan is an archipelago with 4 main islands: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu. The total land space comes across approx. 142,000 square miles. The climate is temperate but varies from North to South. Due to continental drift, the country experiences more number of earthquakes and tsunamis. It has many volcanoes also.
The country’s economy is third largest in the world in terms of nominal GDP, and fourth as per power purchasing parity which is contributed by Automobile manufacturing industry, Agriculture products, and Natural resources like minerals, fish and major exports like Textiles, Processed foods, Steel and Machine tools.
Technological advances enabled Japan to lead the world. The country is pioneer in advanced research in electronics, machinery, biomedical devices, computer science, robotics and medical sciences. Japan is third largest in funding scientific research and has produced 24 Nobel laureates from Physics, Chemistry and Literature. Numerous engineering journals are published from Japan with good reputation. Government provides the expenditure for Research and development by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). Some of the independent institutions are supported by funding bodies like the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) attached to MEXT and the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) attached to the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). A second group of IAIs are independent research agencies directly funded by the ministries such as the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) and the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) funded by MEXT, or the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) funded by METI.