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India is an Asian country officially known as the Republic of India and New Delhi is the capital city. It is considered as the second-most populous democratic country in the world with about 1.2 billion inhabitants. India is a having federal republic government under a parliamentary system consisting of 29 states and 7 union territories. India is renowned for its diversity of religions, languages, and cultures which is unique and non-comparable with one of the oldest society which is varied and complex in its rich heritage.
It is situated in the southern Asia, a total of 3,287,263 square kilometers in area, lying atop the Indian tectonic plate, and part of the Indo-Australian Plate. It is surrounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the south-west, and the Bay of Bengal on the south-east and having Pakistan to the west, China, Nepal and Bhutan to the north-east and Myanmar and Bangladesh to the east, as its bordering countries. India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; in addition, India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share border with Thailand and Indonesia. Its coastline extends 7,517 kilometers in length where 5,423 kilometers belong to peninsular India and 2,094 kilometers to the Andaman, Nicobar, and Lakshadweep island chains. The Indian climate is immensely influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert prevailing with tropical wet, tropical dry, subtropical humid and montane climatic conditions.
The economy of India has been now considered as the world's seventh-largest economy by nominal gross domestic product (GDP), as well as the third-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). It is a developing country which is considered as a newly industrialized country. It leads with the telecommunication industry which is the world’s fastest growing industry surpassing Japan to become the third after China and USA. Its economy thrives with the automotive and IT industries. Its pharmaceutical industry is among the significant emerging markets for global pharma industry and R & D spending constitutes 60% of the biopharmaceutical industry. It has been ranked sixth in military expenditure among nations with excellent nuclear weapons state and a regional power and having the third-largest standing army in the world.
India’s R&D provides a platform for various fields such as ICT and wireless technology, Pharmaceuticals & healthcare, manufacturing technologies, material energy, bio-energy, water technology etc. The researches in India are more focused on chemistry and food sciences than other areas. In chemistry, India’s top institutions are competitive with those in Europe, the USA and Asia, and stand up to be counted among the world’s top ranks. Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is setting marks to the height that other nations are coping up with and throwing a huge catch for the other food sciences researches.