Indonesia is an Asian country officially known as Republic of Indonesia. Jakarta is the capital and also the largest city of the country. It is the largest and most populous country situated only on islands and also the largest country in South East Asia. It is considered as the fourth most populous country having 258 million inhabitants with a majority of people following Islam.
Indonesia lies between latitudes 11°S and 6°N, and longitudes 95°E and 141°E. It is the largest archipelagic country in the world, extending 5,120 kilometres (3,181 mi) from east to west and 1,760 kilometres (1,094 mi) from north to south. According to a geospatial survey conducted between 2007 and 2010 by National Coordinating Agency for Survey and Mapping (Bakosurtanal), Indonesia has 13,466 islands, about 6,000 of which are inhabited. These are scattered over both sides of the equator. The largest are Java, Sumatra, New Guinea, and Sulawesi. Indonesia shares land borders with Malaysia on Borneo, Papua New Guinea on the island of New Guinea, and East Timor on the island of Timor. Indonesia shares maritime borders across narrow straits with Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Palau to the north, and with Australia to the south. The capital, Jakarta, is on Java and is the nation's largest city, followed by Surabaya, Bandung, Medan, and Semarang.
Indonesia is the among the emerging market economies and is among the G20 economic countries. It has the largest economy in the Southeast Asia. It has the mixed economy of Government and the private sectors. Indonesia is the world largest producers of the Palm Oil and has about the half the world supply. After China, Indonesia is the second largest producer of the Noddles. Indonesia is not the world's leading country in science and technology development when compared to other countries. Throughout the Indonesian History, science and technology has a notable achievements and contributions. The Indonesian government has provided 1percent of its total state expenditure towards the research and development. The road construction technology which was the remarkable development by Indonesia was patented to Indonesia and was exported to countries like Philippines, Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia. Indonesia has few good achievements in Construction, Aerospace, Information technology and Robotics.
Indonesia’s research and development revenue has grown by 15% driven by the rising investment in research and development activities and government funding. R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development. Local research and development providers depends mostly on International partners that helped establish the independent funding body and it is anticipated to be driven by growing foreign direct investment (FDI) and continuing government incentives to encourage R&D operations in country. Associations and organizations like the Indonesian Science Fund (ISF), the US Academy of Science, the Australian Academy of Science and the United Kingdom’s Newton Fund, Food & Business Applied Research Fund etc. encourage research in the various fields of sciences, life sciences, food sciences and technology.