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Russia, also officially known as the Russian Federation. It is a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia is the largest country in the world, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area. Russia is the world's ninth most populous country with over 144 million people at the end of 2015.
Russia is the largest country in the world. Its area is 17 098.242 thousand square km. The state is located in Eastern Europe and northern Asia.
The Russian Federation is the largest of the 21 republics that make up the Commonwealth of Independent States. It occupies most of Eastern Europe and north Asia, stretching from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east, and from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea and the Caucasus in the south. It is bordered by Norway and Finland in the northwest; Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, Poland, and Lithuania in the west; Georgia and Azerbaijan in the southwest; and Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, and North Korea along the southern border.
Russia's weather is known to change from extremely cold to extremely hot and varies from the subtropical on the Black Sea coast to the continental in Southern Siberia.
Russia has a developed, high-income market economy with enormous natural resources, particularly oil and natural gas. It has the 15th largest economy in the world by nominal GDP and the 6th largest by purchasing power parity.
Research and development (R&D) centers in Russia owned by foreign multinationals first began to appear in Russia in the 1990s. Debis (now T-Systems) was the first, opening in 1995, followed by Intel and Deutsche Bank in 2001, and Oracle (which now incorporates Sun Microsystems) in 2004. The trend continues with recent R&D centers being opened by Nokia and Microsoft. Currently the export volume of R&D centers is estimated to be around $380 million, demonstrating year-on-year growth of 9 percent.
The Russian Foundation for Basic Research takes significant place in system of the organization of Russian science. The RFBR supports the most active scientific and technical potential of the country, provides scientists of Russia with financial support, and realizes competitive funding mechanisms for scientific researches on the basis of expert estimates.
Today, Russia is no outsider in the world of innovation, especially when it comes to the categories of Aerospace & Defense and Oil & Gas. Furthermore, Russian scientists are leaders in doing research related to semiconductors and pharmaceuticals, as well as innovations in the field of food science, tobacco and beverage and others like Food Science journals are spearheading the Food science research.