South Africa is one of the most diverse interesting countries in the world. Tourists flock to South Africa for its natural beauty, wildlife and sunshine. South Africa is located on the southern tip of the African continent, bordered by northern neighbours Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. South Africans have been referred to as the 'rainbow nation', a title which illuminates the country's cultural diversity.
South Africa occupies the southern tip of Africa, its coastline stretching more than 2,500 kilometres (1,600 miles) from the desert border with Namibia on the Atlantic (western) coast southwards around the tip of Africa and then north to the border with Mozambique on the Indian Ocean.
The economy of South Africa is the second-largest in Africa, behind Nigeria. South Africa's Gross Domestic Product has almost tripled to $400 billion, and foreign exchange reserves have increased from $3 billion to nearly $50 billion. High levels of unemployment, income inequality, growing public debt, political mismanagement, low levels of education, reliable access to electricity, and crime are all serious problems that have negatively impacted the South African economy. R&D performed within South Africa by five sectors, namely: the government, science councils, higher educational institutions, business enterprises, and not-for-profit organisations.
South Africa developed a vaccine against yellow fever, Allan McLeod Cormack pioneered x-ray computed tomography, and Aaron Klug developed crystallographic electron microscopy techniques. With the exception of that of Barnard, all of these advancements were recognized with Nobel Prizes. Sydney Brenner won most recently, in 2002, for his pioneering work in molecular biology. Numerous Food Science journals are published from South Africa with good reputation. Several leading Institution in the country including University of Cape Town, University of the Witwatersrand, University of Pretoria, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Stellenbosch University, University of South Africa, and others like Food Science journals South Africa are spearheading the Food science research.