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Japan is an Asian country which is in the Asia Pacific region and a neighbor of P.R. China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia. The ?kanji? that makes up Japan's name mean "sun origin", and it is often called the "Land of the Rising Sun". It has high-rise-filled cities, imperial palaces, mountainous national parks and thousands of shrines and temples. Population of Japan is 127 million people (2010, 10th largest country in the world by population)
The country consists of four major islands: Hokkaid?, Honsh?, Shikoku, and Ky?sh?; with more than 6,500 adjacent smaller islands and islets including the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands in the Nanp? Islands, and the Satsunan Islands, Okinawa Islands, and Sakishima Islands of the Ryukyu Islands. Its total area ranked 61 out of 233 countries. About 73 percent of Japan is forested, mountainous, and unsuitable for agricultural, industrial, or residential use. Japan has 108 active volcanoes. Destructive earthquakes, often resulting in tsunami, occur several times each century. Due to its location in the Pacific Ring of Fire, Japan is substantially prone to earthquakes and tsunami, having the highest natural disaster risk in the developed world. The country is having a chain of islands (archipelago) with numerous composite volcanos.
Japan ranks among the topmost countries as a proven leader in the global effort toward research and development. The economy of Japan is the third-largest in the world by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP) and is the world's second largest developed economy. Due to a volatile currency exchange rate, Japan's GDP as measured in dollars fluctuates widely. Accounting for these fluctuations through use of the Atlas method, Japan is estimated to have a GDP per capita of around $38,490. It is also the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. After huge suffering from atomic bombing during World War II, Japan excelled in all arenas of research and development. The country is pioneer in advanced research in electronics, machinery, biomedical devices, computer science, robotics and medical sciences. Japan counted 68 companies in the Fortune/CNN Money Global 500 ranking of the world?s largest corporations.
Japan has received the most science Nobel prizes in Asia. In Physics, Medicine and Chemistry, this island nation produced 21 Nobel laureates so far. Susumu Tonegawa is a Japanese scientist who was the sole recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1987, for his discovery of the genetic mechanism that produces antibody diversity. In the 21st century, in the field of natural science, the number of Japanese winners of the Nobel Prize has been second behind the U.S. Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development monitors the funding and integration of the R & D related to medical sciences in the country. Several leading Institution in the country including University of Tokyo, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Kyoto University, Osaka University, RIKEN, Tokyo Institute of Technology and others are spearheading the medical research). Japan promoted integrated research and development in the field of medicine, from the basic research to clinical trials, establishing, maintaining, and providing funding for an environment for integrated R&D through to practical application. Research in medicine covers a wide variety of medical fields, including oncology, immunology, genetics, regenerative medicine, and translational research. The Japanese association of medical sciences contains 126 medical journals. Articles published in highly reputed Haematology journals Japan were accessed through the MEDLINE database.