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Turkey has been inhabited since the paleolithic age, including various ancient Anatolian civilizations, Aeolian, Dorian and Ionian Greeks, Thracians, Armenians, and Assyrians. After Alexander the Great's conquest, the area was Hellenized, a process which continued under the Roman Empire and its transition into the Byzantine Empire.
Turkey's varied landscapes are the product of complex earth movements that have shaped the region over thousands of years and still manifest themselves in fairly frequent earthquakes and occasional volcanic eruptions. The Bosphorus and the Dardanelles owe their existence to the fault lines running through Turkey that led to the creation of the Black Sea. The North Anatolian Fault Line runs across the north of the country from west to east, along which major earthquakes took place in history. The latest of those big earthquakes was the 1999 ?zmit earthquake.
Turkey has a sizeable automotive industry, ranking as the 17th largest producer in the world. The major export markets are Malta, Marshall Islands, Panama and the United Kingdom. Turkish shipyards have 15 floating docks of different sizes and onedry dock. Tuzla, Yalova, and ?zmit have developed into dynamic shipbuilding centres. Turkish shipyards are highly regarded both for the production of chemical and oil tankers up to 10,000 dwt and also for their mega yachts.
In Chemistry and Literature, Turkey produced 2 Nobel laureates so far. Eminent editor like Olga Meltem Akay from Department of Hematology, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, are working in the field of Hematology. Numerous Hematology Journals are published from Turkey with good reputation.