Argentina is a federal republic located in southeastern South America. Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of the Argentine Republic. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with its neighbour Chile, it is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north; Brazil to the northeast; Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east; Chile to the west and the Drake Passage to the south.
Argentina is located in southern South America, sharing land borders with Chile across the Andes to the west Bolivia and Paraguay to the north; Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east and the Drake Passage to the south for an overall land border length of 9,376 km (5,826 mi). Its coastal border over the Río de la Plata and South Atlantic Ocean is 5,117 km (3,180 mi) long. Argentina's highest point is Aconcagua in the Mendoza province (6,959 m (22,831 ft) above sea level), also the highest point in the Southern and Western Hemispheres. The lowest point is Laguna del Carbón in the San Julián Great Depression Santa Cruz province (−105 m (−344 ft) below sea level, also the lowest point in the Southern and Western Hemispheres, and the seventh lowest point on Earth).
Argentines have three Nobel Prize laureates in the Sciences. Bernardo Houssay, the first Latin American among them, discovered the role of pituitary hormones in regulating glucose in animals. César Milstein did extensive research in antibodies. Luis Leloir discovered how organisms store energy converting glucose into glycogen and the compounds which are fundamental in metabolizing carbohydrates. Argentine research has led to the treatment of heart diseases and several forms of cancer. Domingo Liotta designed and developed the first artificial heart successfully implanted in a human being in 1969. René Favaloro developed the techniques and performed the world's first ever coronary bypass surgery. Argentina's nuclear programme has been highly successful. In 1957 Argentina was the first country in Latin America to design and build a research reactor with homegrown technology, the RA-1 Enrico Fermi. This reliance in the development of own nuclear related technologies, instead of simply buying them abroad, was a constant of Argentina's nuclear programme conducted by the civilian National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). Nuclear facilities with Argentine technology have been built in Peru, Algeria, Australia and Egypt.
Argentina's government has introduced a research and development (R&D) strategy that could result in R&D investment rising from 0.65 to 1.65 per cent of GDP. It is proposing plans and projections for R&D in six strategic areas: energy, industry, health, agribusiness, social development, and environment and sustainable development. Organizations and associations like the National Scientific and Technical Research Council , The country's Atomic Energy Commission CNEA), IBRO-ISN (International Society of Neurochemistry) Research Fellowships, International brain research organization, The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology of Argentina (AIVO), Translational Informatics for Global Health: An Argentina-Oregon Collaboration, Informatics (ITGH) encourage basic research in the natural sciences, life sciences, nuclear research, informatics and technology.