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Brazil is an American country officially known as Federative Republic of Brazil and is considered as the fifth largest country by both area and population in the world, having 190.8 million inhabitants. Brasilia is the current capital of Brazil though Salvador was the first capital of the country. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as its official language.
Brazil is located in the Southern America covering almost half the continent having a total area of 8,515,767.049 square kilometers. It is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east and the running coastline of 7,491 kilometers. It is having Uruguay to the south, Argentina and Paraguay to the southwest, Bolivia and Peru to the west, Colombia to the northwest, and Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and the French overseas department of French Guiana to the north as neighboring countries. All the South American countries share the border with this country except Ecuador and Chile. Almost half of Brazil's territory is covered by the basin of the Amazon River and its tributaries having the world's largest rainforest ecological systems. Brazil is having diverse climate hosting five major climatic conditions: equatorial, tropical, semiarid, highland tropical, temperate, and subtropical.
Brazil has been now considered as fastest growing major economies being the world's ninth-largest economy by nominal gross domestic product (GDP), as well as the seventh-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). Brazil is the founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Unasul, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States, CPLP and the Latin Union. It is the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years and world's major breadbaskets. Research in science and technology has achieved greater heights in the history and still the ongoing projects and researches on various fields of science and technology. Companies such as Motorola, Samsung, Nokia and IBM have established large R&D&I centers in Brazil where IBM had established an IBM Research Center in Brazil since the 1970. Many organizations along with government support researches on various projects.
Brazil is thriving with well-developed organization of science and technology. Its IT industries have achieved remarkable positions, especially in the area of software. Brazil introduced a policy of protectionism in computing. Organizations and foundations like the National Scientific and Technological Development Fund, Ministry of Science and Technology, Brazilian Society for Scientific Development (SBPC), the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), Coordination for Improvement of Personnel with Higher Education (Capes), State Foundations for Research Support (FAPs) encourage basic research in the various field sciences, life sciences, informatics and technology.