Spain is an European country which is in the Europe’s Iberian Peninsula and a neighbor of Portugal, France, Morocco, Gibraltar, Andorra. The capital, Madrid, is home to the Royal Palace and singular Prado museum, housing works by European masters, and Segovia to the north has a fairy-tale medieval castle and Roman aqueduct.
Geographically, Spain is the world's 51st largest country with a landmass of 504,782 square kilometres. As well as the Spanish mainland, the country also consists of the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean and the Canary Islands off the west coast of Africa. Spain also controls the enclaves of Cueta, Melilla and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera in Morocco. Spain is bordered to the north by France, Andorra and the Bay of Biscay (Mar Cantábrico); to the east by the Mediterranean; to the south by the Mediterranean and Gibraltar and to the west, Portugal and the Atlantic ocean. It also has land borders with Morocco via Melilla, Cueta and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera.
Spain has the ninth largest economy in the world and the fifth largest in Europe. Industries include tourism, metal, automotives, shipbuilding, food and textiles. It has a labour force of 23 million that is primarily employed in the services sector. Due to sluggish economy and government cost-cutting strategies, research and development revenue in Spain sees 1% decrease in 2013 and remains stagnant in 2014. Spain’s expenditure on R&D accounts for 1% of GDP compared with Western European average of 2% in 2013. Over 2013-2014 industry manages to maintain stable profitability of 36% of total turnover. Industry’s revenue expected to keep declining due to restricted governmental expenditure on R&D and falling number of scientists.
In Literature, Physiology or Medicine, this nation produced 8 Nobel laureates so far. Spain has established infrastructure for advanced Material Science research. University of Barcelona, is the leading Institution for Material Science, in Spain. Numerous material journals are published from Spain with good reputation. Several leading Institution in the country including ESCI-UPF School of Internatinal Studies, Universidad de Murcia, Carlos III of Madrid University, and others are spearheading the Material Science research.