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Argentina is a massive South American nation with terrain encompassing Andes mountains, glacial lakes and Pampas grassland, the traditional grazing ground of its famed beef cattle. The country is known for tango, steak and football. Its big, cosmopolitan capital, Buenos Aires, is centered on the 16th-century Plaza de Mayo, lined with stately buildings including Casa Rosada, the iconic, balconied presidential palace.
Argentina include 5 major regions, starting with the rain forest areas of the far-northeast along its border with Brazil; the swampy and flat Chaco plain; the fertile (almost treeless) grasslands of the central Pampas; the lengthy plateau of Patagonia that stretches to Tierra del Fuego, and the Andes Mountains along its western border with Chile.
Argentina is one of the largest economies in Latin America with a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of more than US$ 540 billion. In recent years, the country has focused on economic development with social inclusion. Argentina was the top performer in the region in reducing poverty and boosting shared prosperity between 2004 and 2008. Incomes of the bottom 40% grew at an annualized rate of 11.8% compared to average income growth of 7.6%. This trend continued but slowed after 2008. As of 2014, 12.7% lived in poverty – defined as living on under $4 a-day. A third of the population lives on between 4 and 10 dollars a day and remains at risk of falling back into poverty. The primary deficit expanded to 5.4% of GDP in 2015, up from 3.8% in 2014. The Government has announced plans to reduce the primary deficit to 4.8% of GDP by the end of this year, 3.3% by 2017, 1.8% by 2018 and 0.3% by 2019.
Modern history of mathematics in Argentina starts in 1917 with the arrival of Julio Rey Pastor from Spain. He managed to create the necessary conditions for mathematical research. The pioneering work of Luis Santaló, Alberto González Domínguez, Mischa Cotlar, Antonio Monteiro, Orlando Villamayor, Eduardo Zarantonello, Beppo Levi and Jose Babini among others, settled the foundation for the development of mathematics in the country. Many Argentinean mathematicians excelled in their careers abroad, it is enough to mention Calderón and Caffarelli as prominent examples. The Electronic Library of Mathematics publishes refereed papers from any field in mathematics. Manuscripts dealing with topics from informatics are also considered. Submission of a manuscript implies that the work described has not been published elsewhere. The Acta Mathematics Universitatis Comenianae appears in 1 volume per annum in electronic form only (the former paperback edition was founded in 1977). The journal publishes original research articles in pure and applied mathematics. It focuses on the following areas of mathematics: universal algebra and ordered algebraic structures, graph theory and combinatorics, real and functional analysis, measure and integration, differential equations and their applications, dynamical systems and ergodic theory, differential geometry, optimization, numerical analysis. The Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA) is the biggest university in Argentina, founded on August 12, 1821 in the city of Buenos Aires. Since its creation, it is now an institution that is characterized by its academic excellence and has the honour of to have taught three scientific Nobel prizes winners: doctors Bernardo Houssay, Federico Leloir and Caesar Milstein. At the present time, the University of Buenos Aires represents an education.