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China is the third largest of the world, an ancient country having a profound history. Originated in the eastern space of the Huang He Region, the country's civilization is over 5,000 years old and was thought-about one of four ancient civilizations of the planet, along with the civilizations of the traditional Babylon, the ancient Egypt and also the ancient India.
The topography of China has been divided by the government into five homogeneous physical macro-regions, namely Eastern China (subdivided into the northeast plain, north plain, and southern hills), Xinjiang-Mongolia, and the Tibetan highlands. Northeast of Shanhaiguan a narrow sliver of flat coastal land opens up into the vast Manchurian Plain.The Taihang Mountains form the western side of the triangular North China Plain. China recently became the second largest economy and is increasingly playing an important and influential role in the global economy.According to China’s current poverty standard (per capita rural net income of RMB 2,300 per year in 2010 constant prices), there were 70.17 million poor in rural areas in 2014. Rapid economic ascendance has brought on many challenges as well, including high inequality; rapid urbanization; challenges to environmental sustainability; and external imbalances. China also faces demographic pressures related to an aging population and the internal migration of labor.
Mathematics in China emerged independently by the 11th century BC.The Chinese independently developed very large and negative numbers, decimals, a place value decimal system, a binary system, algebra, geometry, and trigonometry. Knowledge of Chinese mathematics before 254 BC is somewhat fragmentary, and even after this date the manuscript traditions are obscure. The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art was one of the most influential of all Chinese mathematical books and it is composed of some 246 problems. Almost as old at the Chou Pei, and perhaps the most influential of all Chinese mathematical books, was the Jiuzhang suanshu, or Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art. This Mathematical Journal includes 246 problems on surveying, agriculture, partnerships, engineering, taxation, calculation, the solution of equations, and the properties of right triangles. Chapter eight of the Nine chapters is significant for its solution of problems of simultaneous linear equations, using both positive and negative numbers. The earliest known magic squares appeared in China. The embryonic state of trigonometry in China slowly began to change and advance during the Song Dynasty (960–1279), where Chinese mathematicians began to express greater emphasis for the need of spherical trigonometry in calendarical science and astronomical calculations.