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The name Italy (Italia) is an old name for the nation and individuals of Southern Italy. Italy officially the Italian Republic is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the 4th most populous EU member state. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino and Vatican City. Initially is was spelled Vitalia, most likely from the same root as the Latin vitulus (a one-year-old calf), hence actually signifying 'calf-land' or "Land of Cattle".
Italy is located in Southern Europe, between latitudes 35° and 47° N, and longitudes 6° and 19° E. To the north, Italy borders France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia, and is roughly delimited by the Alpine watershed, enclosing the Po Valley and the Venetian Plain. The sovereign states of San Marino and the Vatican City are enclaves within Italy, while Campione d'Italia is an Italian exclave in Switzerland.
Statistics on scientific research in Italy reveal a striking contradiction. While the country's R&D ressources significantly lag behind those of other major economies, its output, in terms of scientific publications, is not only one of the most prolific in the world, but also highly recognized in several fields.n recent years, Italy's annual R&D spending, has averaged around 1.13% of GDP, compared with a European Union average of 1.84% (2004-2006). With 51%, the public sector is the largest contributor to R&D funding, compared to the private sector's 48%–an uncommon occurrence in major world economies.The predominant fields are medical science, space science, mathematics, and physics. Over this same period, Italian publications were the seventh most cited internationally (4.16 million) particularly in the fields of molecular biology and genetics, immunology, space science, and neuroscience and behavior–illustrating researchers' proficiency in these fields. In addition to overseeing university research, the MIUR also manages most major research agencies, including the National Research Council (CNR, the largest Italian research organization with approximately 4000 researchers), the energy and environment agency (ENEA), and the national institutes of mathematics (INdAM). Mathematics journals in Itlay widely resaerching in the field of statistics and mathamatics.