Austarlia is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.
It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area. Neighbouring countries include Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east.
Australia's landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi) is on the Indo-Australian Plate. Surrounded by the Indian and Pacific oceans, it is separated from Asia by the Arafura and Timor seas, with the Coral Sea lying off the Queensland coast, and the Tasman Sea lying between Australia and New Zealand. The world's smallest continent and sixth largest country by total area, Australia—owing to its size and isolation—is often dubbed the "island continent", and is sometimes considered the world's largest island. Australia has 34,218 kilometres (21,262 mi) of coastline (excluding all offshore islands), and claims an extensive Exclusive Economic Zone of 8,148,250 square kilometres (3,146,060 sq mi).
Australia is a wealthy country; it generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications, banking and manufacturing. It has a market economy, a relatively high GDP per capita, and a relatively low rate of poverty. In terms of average wealth, Australia ranked second in the world after Switzerland in 2013, although the nation's poverty rate increased from 10.2% to 11.8%, from 2000/01 to 2013. It was identified by the Credit Suisse Research Institute as the nation with the highest median wealth in the world and the second-highest average wealth per adult in 2013. Since 2008, inflation has typically been 2–3% and the base interest rate 5–6%. The service sector of the economy, including tourism, education, and financial services, accounts for about 70% of GDP. Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major exporter of agricultural products, particularly wheat and wool, minerals such as iron-ore and gold, and energy in the forms of liquefied natural gas and coal. Although agriculture and natural resources account for only 3% and 5% of GDP respectively, they contribute substantially to export performance. Australia's largest export markets are Japan, China, the US, South Korea, and New Zealand. Australia is the world's fourth largest exporter of wine, and the wine industry contributes $5.5 billion per year to the nation's economy.
There are an established and growing number of Mendelian genetic causes for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adults, though estimates of prevalence have been speculative. The CKD Queensland (CKD.QLD) registry enables partial clarification of this through the study of adults with CKD receiving nephrology care throughout Queensland, Australia. According to recent Australia Nephrology journals list, the numbers of patients commencing RRT each year increased by 321% between 1990 and 2009. This increase was largely driven by increases in patients with diabetic nephropathy. In 2009 35% of new patients had ESKD resulting from diabetic nephropathy 92% of which were type 2. Indigenous Australians, and M?ori and Pacific people of NZ have elevated risks of commencing RRT due to diabetic nephropathy, although the risks compared with non-indigenous Australians have decreased over time. A small element of lead time bias also contributed to this increase. Males are more likely to commence RRT due to diabetes than females, except among Australian Aborigines, where females are more at risk. There is a marked increase in older, more comorbid patients published in list of Nephrology Journals Australia. According to the recent research published in Nephrology Journals Australia, a total of 7657 patients underwent PD treatment during the study period. Patient distribution was 69.0% MC, 19.6% IR, 9.5% OR, and 1.8% REM. PD uptake increased with increasing remoteness. Compared with MC, sub-hazard ratios [95% confidence intervals] for commencing PD were 1.70 [1.61-1.79] IR, 2.01 [1.87-2.16] OR, and 2.60 [2.21-3.06] REM. During the first 6 months of PD, technique failure was less likely outside MC (sub-hazard ratio 0.47 [95% CI: 0.35-0.62], P < 0.001), but no difference was seen after 6 months (sub-hazard ratio 1.05 [95% CI: 0.84-1.32], P = 0.6). Technique failure due to technical (sub-hazard ratio 0.57 [95% CI: 0.38-0.84], P = 0.005) and non-medical causes (sub-hazard ratio 0.52 [95% CI: 0.31-0.87], P = 0.01) was less likely outside MC. Time to first peritonitis episode was not associated with remoteness (P = 0.8). Nephrology Journals that patient survival while on PD or within 90 days of stopping PD did not differ by region (P = 0.2). Chronic kidney disease in Australia, 2005 is the first national report on this disease. The report compiles the latest information from a variety of data sources, and presents information on levels of kidney damage, reduced kidney function and end-stage kidney disease in the population, the factors that contribute to chronic kidney disease, and treatment and prevention programs. At times, limitations in knowledge and national information on chronic kidney disease have restricted the content and coverage of issues that are essential to a comprehensive understanding of the disease. Nevertheless, the report from list of Nephrology journals provides an opportunity to look at chronic kidney disease systematically, and also provides valuable baseline information for further monitoring of this disease in the future.