Brazil is a democratic country situated in South American continent. Brazil population is around 201.0 million. In terms of area and population, Brazil stands 5th in the world. Portuguese is the majorly spoken language in Brazil and is the only country in the Americas to have it as official language. The country is home for huge natural water reservoirs, the biggest forest, diverse flora and fauna, minerals and water resources of great value. Majority of the Brazil’s population are Roman Catholics and is the largest Roman Catholic majority country in the world. The country has been the largest producer of coffee since 150 years. Brazil is also has popular for its football prowess.
Brazil is on the eastern side of South America and is bounded by Atlantic Ocean on the east. It has a total area of 8,515,692.27 km2 with land covering 8,456,510 km2 and water covering 55,455 km2. The coastline of Brazil measures 7,491 km. The country is 4,395 kilometers long from north to south and 4,319 kilometers from east. Approximately half of (47.3%) South America is occupied by Brazil and surrounded by all South American countries except Chile and Ecuador. It has 26 States and a Federal District in which national capital city Brasília is located. The climate of Brazil is tropical in most of the parts with south relatively temperate. One of longest rivers in the world, Amazon passes through Brazil.
With respect to economy, as of 2015, Brazil stood as ninth-largest in terms of nominal GDP and seventh-largest by GDP (PPP) in the world. It is a member of BRIC. Until 2010, Brazil has fastest growing economies with its economic reforms helping greatly to the country’s recognition and influence. National development bank majorly contributes to the economic growth of the country.
The expenditure towards R&D in Brazil in 2009 and 2010 was less due to global recession, but it was one of the first countries which recovered from R&D spending out of recession. Brazil’s R&D budget has increased 8.1% with $29.5 billion in 2012 to $31.9 billion in 2013. Brazil’s R&D spending is 75% of the total in all of South America. Brazil’s science and technology development puts it on top of global R&D ranking. On average, Brazil shares more than 2% R&D output in 10 fields of science listed by Thomson Reuters. The country is good in the life science research, particularly related to natural resources. For example, 18% of world technical publications in tropical medicine are from Brazil. Other fields like entomology has 7% share, biology has 6.4% share and zoology has 5.6% share.
Brazil has a big network of nephrologists. Regarding kidney transplantation, Brazil is second in the world in absolute number of procedures. Around 5,385 kidney transplants were performed in Brazil In 2012. There are 3,000 nephrologists in Brazil. The New Brazilian Journal of Nephrology has been initiated by Brazilian Society of Nephrology to disseminate knowledge in the field of nephrology among international nephrology community with high quality publications from Brazilian and Latin American nephrologists.