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Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world's second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area. Canada's border with the United States is the world's longest land border. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land territory being dominated by forest and tundra and the Rocky Mountains; about four-fifths of the country's population of 35 million people live near the southern border. The majority of Canada has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer.
Canada occupies much of the continent of North America, sharing land borders with the contiguous United States to the south, and the US state of Alaska to the northwest. Canada stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west; to the north lie’s the Arctic Ocean. Greenland is to the northeast. By total area (including its waters), Canada is the second-largest country in the world, after Russia. By land area alone, however, Canada ranks fourth, the difference being due to it having the world’s largest proportion of fresh water lakes.
In 2012, Canada spent approximately C$31.3 billion on domestic research and development, of which around $7 billion was provided by the federal and provincial governments. As of 2015, the country has produced thirteen Nobel laureates in physics, chemistry, and medicine, and was ranked fourth worldwide for scientific research quality in a major 2012 survey of international scientists. It is furthermore home to the headquarters of a number of global technology firms. Canada has one of the highest levels of Internet access in the world, with over 33 million users, equivalent to around 94 percent of its total 2014 population. The Canadian Space Agency operates a highly active space program, conducting deep-space, planetary, and aviation research, and developing rockets and satellites. Canada was the third country to launch a satellite into space after the USSR and the United States, with the 1962 Alouette 1 launch.
According to Nephrology Journals Canada the people they who have been directly affected by kidney failure, Canadian entertainment icons Jann Arden, Paul Brandt and Russell Peters encourage all Canadians to register to become organ donors in a new public service announcement released today by The Kidney Foundation of Canada for National Organ and Tissue Donation Awareness Week. These stars share the grim facts about kidney failure and organ donation. Of the 4,500 Canadians on the transplant waiting list, more than 77% are waiting for a kidney. Recent statistics indicate 25% of the people who died while waiting for organs were waiting for a kidney — and the need for kidneys far exceeds the supply. The Kidney Foundation of Canada wants to change that, and is aiming to increase kidney transplant and organ donation by 50% by 2020. Performing clinical research among pediatric end-stage renal disease patients is challenging. Barriers to successful initiation and completion of clinical research projects include small sample sizes and resultant limited statistical power and lack of longitudinal follow-up for hard clinical end-points in most single center studies according to Canada Nephrology journals list. Still some results oflist of Nephrology journals Canada reveal that Existing longitudinal organ failure disease registry and administrative health datasets available within a universal access health care system can be used to study outcomes of end-stage renal disease among pediatric patients in Canada. To construct the Canadian Pediatric End-Stage Renal Disease database, registry data were linked to administrative health data through deterministic linkage techniques creating a research database which consists of socio-demographic variables, clinical variables, all-cause hospitalizations, and relevant outcomes (death and renal allograft loss) for this patient population. The research database also allows study of major cardiovascular events using previously validated administrative data definitions which are available fromNephrology journals. Scope of the list of Nephrology journals include Canadian nephrologists, primary care physicians, general internists, and other internal medicine subspecialists and nursing specialists who care for patients with chronic kidney disease and play a critical role in referring patients and comanaging their treatment.