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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is the world's most populous state, with a population of over 1.381 billion.
The PRC is governed by the Communist Party, with its seat of government in the capital city of Beijing. It exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), two mostly self-governing special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau), and claims sovereignty over the Republic of China (island of Taiwan) off the southeast coast of the mainland.
The territory of China lies between latitudes 18° and 54° N, and longitudes 73° and 135° E. China's landscapes vary significantly across its vast width. In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, there are extensive and densely populated alluvial plains, while on the edges of the Inner Mongolian plateau in the north, broad grasslands predominate. Southern China is dominated by hills and low mountain ranges, while the central-east hosts the deltas of China's two major rivers, the Yellow River and the Yangtze River. Other major rivers include the Xi, Mekong, Brahmaputra and Amur. To the west sit major mountain ranges, most notably the Himalayas. High plateaus feature among the more arid landscapes of the north, such as the Taklamakan and the Gobi Desert. The world's highest point, Mount Everest (8,848m), lies on the Sino-Nepalese border. The country's lowest point, and the world's third-lowest, is the dried lake bed of Ayding Lake (−154m) in the Turpan Depression.
China is rapidly developing its education system with an emphasis on science, mathematics and engineering; in 2009, it produced over 10,000 Ph.D. engineering graduates, and as many as 500,000 BSc graduates, more than any other country. China is also the world's second-largest publisher of scientific papers, producing 121,500 in 2010 alone, including 5,200 in leading international scientific journals. Chinese technology companies such as Huawei and Lenovo have become world leaders in telecommunications and personal computing, and Chinese supercomputers are consistently ranked among the world’s most powerful. China is furthermore experiencing a significant growth in the use of industrial robots; from 2008 to 2011, the installation of multi-role robots in Chinese factories rose by 136 percent. The Chinese space program is one of the world's most active, and is a major source of national pride.
The research output in the field of nephrology in ML developed markedly by Nephrology journals in the last 7 years (an average annual increase of 54% from 2004); ML exceeded TW and HK since 2008. The research output born in ML was mainly from five cities, for example, Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, Guangzhou, and Hangzhou, which accounted for 72% of the total. Since 2001, clinical research papers increased yearly by 11.55, and the basic research papers increased by 4.55. However, clinical trials were still limited. In 2010, ML had the highest accumulated IF and the lowest average IF. ML had the second highest number of publications in the 10 top-ranking Nephrology journals China among the three regions. Nephrological work in China started in early 60s, but it was not until the middle of the 1980s before it became an independent discipline and linked with the international nephrology community. Due to the huge population and enormous territory, nephrologists are facing a great mission and momentous challenges. Most nephrologists reside in the coastal region, which has a higher education background than most of the rest of the country. Among them, Beijing, Shanghai, Guanzhong and Nangjing are the major centers for training graduate students to conduct basic and clinical research as per China Nephrology Journals list. According to the reports of List of Nephrology journals 50,550 people were invited to participate, of whom 47,204 agreed. The adjusted prevalence of eGFR less than 60 mL/min per 1•73 m(2) was 1•7% (95% CI 1•5-1•9) and of albuminuria was 9•4% (8•9-10•0). The overall prevalence of chronic kidney disease was 10•8% (10•2-11•3); therefore the number of patients with chronic kidney disease in China is estimated to be about 119•5 million (112•9-125•0 million). In rural areas, economic development was independently associated with the presence of albuminuria. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease was high in north (16•9% [15•1-18•7]) and southwest (18•3% [16•4-20•4]) regions compared with other regions. Other factors independently associated with kidney damage were age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, history of cardiovascular disease, hyperuricaemia, area of residence, and economic status published in list of Nephrology journals China.