Germany is a developed country located in Western Central Europe. It has 16 constituent states. Berlin is the capital city and it is the Germany's largest city. Germany’s population is around 82 million which is largest among all European countries with a density of 230 people per square kilometre.
Germany covers an area of 357,022 square kilometres. It measures 876 kilometres from its north to south and 640 kilometres from east to west. It has 349,223 km2 of land area and 7,798 km2 of water. In terms of area, It stands seventh largest in Europe and 63rd largest in the world. It lies between 47° and 55° northern latitudes and 5° and 16° Eastern longitudes. Germany is rich in natural beauty. Extremely diverse landscapes lie between the North Sea and Baltic coasts to the north and at the peaks of the Alps to the south with river and lakeland scenery, hilly uplands and densely wooded regions to agricultural plains and industrial conurbations. it is the second most popular migration destination in the world next to USA.
Germany’s economy is largest in Europe and is world's fourth-largest by nominal GDP and fifth-largest by PPP. It is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods. The concept of the social market economy is the basis of Germany’s economic model. Germany ranks 3rd in the world with respect to export of goods and services with 1.13 trillion euros. 70% of German’s GDP is contributed by the service sector, 29.1% by industry, 0.9% by agriculture. 41% of national income is accounted under exports.
In Germany, research is performed in various locations including universities, universities of applied sciences, non-university institutes, companies and Federal as well as Länder institutions. In total, Germany has above 800 publicly-funded research institutions, research and development centers run by industrial corporations. Germany has over 360,000 research staff with around 200,000 researchers. As per internal R&D expenditure, annual budget for R&D is approximately 56.1 billion euros. The German Research Foundation (DFG) mediated knowledge transfer between research and industry. Germany is an excellent choice to carry out a research project and get in touch with the German and international scientific community. Today in Germany, money is invested in research like never before: Around 45 billion Euros are put into research and development every year. Consequently, science and research are carried out on the highest international level, and Germany occupies a leading position in science and research. So far, German scientists have received a total of 79 Nobel Prizes for their achievements in the field of natural sciences, including 29 in chemistry, 28 in physics, and 22 in medicine or physiology. A wide range of funding options is available to foreign scientists, provided by government bodies, large organisations such as the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG) and the DAAD as well as numerous prominent foundations such as the Alexander von Humboldt foundation or the VW Foundation.
According to medical council statistics, there are currently 2,378 active nephrologists in German. The German Society of Nephrology Research (DGfN) provide scholarships, each worth € 25,000, to support research projects in Germany. Research scholarships are also awarded by the German Renal Foundation (Deutsche Nierenstiftung) which works closely with DGfN. The Kidney Academy in DGfN trains nephrologists in Germany.