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The largest country on earth in terms of surface area - emerged from a decade of post-Soviet economic and political turmoil to reassert itself as a world power. Income from vast natural resources, above all oil and gas, have helped Russia overcome the economic collapse of 1998. The state-run gas monopoly Gazprom is the world's largest producer and exporter, and supplies a large share of Europe's needs. Economic strength has allowed Vladimir Putin - Russia's dominant political figure since 2000 - to enhance state control over political institutions and the media - a process supplemented more recently by an emphasis on fierce nationalism and hostility to the West.
The geography of Russia describes the geographic features of Russia, a country extending over much of northern Eurasia. Comprising much of eastern Europe and northern Asia, it is the world's largest country in total area. Due to its size, Russia displays both monotony and diversity. As with its topography, its climates, vegetation, and soils span vast distances. From north to south the East European Plain is clad sequentially in tundra, coniferous forest (taiga), mixed and broadleaf forests, grassland (steppe), and semi-desert (fringing the Caspian Sea) as the changes in vegetation reflect the changes in climate. Siberia supports a similar sequence but is predominantly taiga. The country contains forty UNESCO biosphere reserves
The Russian economy risked going into recession from early 2014 - mainly as a result of the falling oil prices, the 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine and the subsequent capital flight. However, the 2014 GDP growth remained positive at 0.6%.In 2015, the Russian economy shrunk by 3.7% and is expected to shrink further in 2016. However, theWorld Bank and the IMF estimate that Russia's economy will begin to recover by 2017. In January 2016, the US company Bloomberg rated Russia's economy as the 12th most innovative in the world, up from 14th in January 2015 and 18th in January 2014. Russia has the world's 15th highest patent application rate, the 8th highest concentration of high-tech public companies, such as internet and aerospace and the third highest graduation rate of scientists and engineers. At the present time Federal Agency for Science and Innovations (Rosnauka), for example, runs 6 Federal Targeted Programmes in different thematic. Federal Targeted Programme “Research and Development in Priority Development Directions of the Russian Technology Complex 2007-2012» (the total amount of federal funding for R&D is 128 bln. rubles, equivalent to 3.1 bln. Euro) Federal Targeted Programme “Development of the nanoindustrial infrastructure in the Russian Federation 2008-2010” (total programme budget – 28 bln. Rubles - 0, 68 bln. Euro) Federal Targeted Programme “National technology base” 2007-2011 (the total amount of federal funding for R&D is 36 bln. rubles, equivalent to 0.88 bln. Euro) Federal Targeted Programme “Scientific and educational staff of innovation Russia” 2009-2013 (the total amount of federal funding for R&D is 44 bln. rubles, equivalent to 1.1 bln. Euro) Federal Targeted Programme “Development of the electronic component base and radioelectronics” 2008-2015 (the total amount of federal funding for R&D is 66 bln. rubles, equivalent to 1.6 bln. Euro) Federal Targeted Programme “High seas” 2008-2015 (the total amount of federal funding for R&D in 2008-2012 is 8 bln. rubles, equivalent to 0.2 bln. Euro)
Nephrology is a versatile branch of the medical science which deals with the study, diagnosis and treatment of normal functioning and disorders of the kidney. Renal replacement therapy, which includes dialysis and kidney transplantation, constitutes a major part of the subject. A physician, specialized in this field is called a nephrologist or renal physician. Patients suffering from acute renal failure, kidney stones, hematuria, hypertension and electrolytic (acid/base) disorders, are referred to nephrologists. The MBBS and post-graduation course curriculum in Russia provide a meticulously planned training program, which includes an optimum blend of theoretical and practical exposures, in Nephrology. Russian Government offers 50% subsidization of medical study expenses in Russia for international students. Candidates are expected to pay 50% partial tuition fees ranging between 3000 and 4500 USD, on an average per annum. The tuition expense depends on the choice of course, specialization, university, undergraduate or postgraduate degree, city, instruction language etc. Benefits of Medical studies in Russia and recognitions Russian Medical Universities do not accept any capitation or donation fee. Education expense and cost of living in Russia are subsidized by the Russian Government. Hence the net expenditure for medical studies is reduced drastically as compared to expenses in other foreign countries. Medical studies in Russia involve exhaustive theoretical and practical exposure, coupled with highly modernized medical infrastructure. The medical universities are involved in intensive and extensive developmental clinical and surgical research. The scrupulously planned medical curriculum is recognized by World Health Organization