Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Canada's border with the United States is the world's longest land border. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education.
Geographically, its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean. Canada is the world's second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area. Canada is a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy.
Canada has the 11th or 15th-largest (PPP) economy in the world, is one of the world's wealthiest nations, and is a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Group of Seven (G7).Canada also has a sizable manufacturing sector, based in Central Canada, with the automobile industry and aircraft industry being especially important. In physiology and Medicine, Canada produced 5 Nobel laureates so far. Canada has established infrastructure for advanced medical research. The Canadian Foundation for Infectious Diseases (CFID) is a charitable organization and committed to improving the health of Canadians.