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Saudi Arabia is a desert country encompassing most of the Arabian Peninsula, with Red Sea and Persian (Arabian) Gulf coastlines. Known as the birthplace of Islam, it’s home to the religion’s 2 most sacred mosques: Masjid al-Haram, in Mecca, destination of the annual Hajj pilgrimage, and Medina’s Masjid an-Nabawi, burial site of the prophet Muhammad. Riyadh, the capital, is a skyscraper-filled metropolis.
Extending across most of the northern and central Arabian Peninsula, Saudi Arabia is a young country that is heir to a rich history. In its western highlands, along the Red Sea, lies the Hejaz, which is the cradle of Islam and the site of that religion’s holiest cities, and Medina. In the country’s geographic heartland is a region known as Najd (“Highland”), a vast arid zone that until recent times was a rich pastiche of warring and feuding Bedouin tribes and clans. To the east, along the Persian Gulf, are the country’s abundant oil fields that, since the 1960s, have made Saudi Arabia synonymous with petroleum wealth. Those three elements—religion, tribalism, and untold wealth—have fueled the country’s subsequent history.
Saudi Arabia’s free market economy has undergone remarkable changes in a relatively short period of time. It has evolved from a basic agricultural society into a regional and global economic power with a modern infrastructure. Petroleum is an integral part of the Saudi economy; Saudi Arabia is the world’s largest producer and exporter of oil. In recent decades the Kingdom has increasingly diversified its economy, and today produces and exports a variety of industrial goods all over the globe. The R&D discourse, for Saudi Arabia in particular, and the developing world in general, inevitably follows the same path. The discourse commences with a brief introduction on what is R&D, then certain statistics are cited to demonstrate how little we are spending on R&D compared to others, and concludes by enumerating examples of successful R&D initiatives and/or bodies.
Government support and private investments in R&D determine Saudi Arabia’s R&D industry to expand by 1% in 2014 according to list of nursing journals Saudi Arabia. However, R&D industry remains highly underdeveloped, and 43% of the market is attributed to spending on foreign R&D services in 2014. Sciences and engineering account for 94% of total industry revenue in 2014, driven by growing investments in healthcare and defence industries based on Saudi Arabia Nursing journals list. Industry’s revenue anticipated to be fuelled by growing investments in healthcare industry, continuing government support towards becoming a knowledge-based economy and investments in efficiency improvement in oil and gas industry seen in Nursing journals Saudi Arabia. Research and development expenditure (% of GDP) in Saudi Arabia was 0.07 as of 2009. Its highest value over the past 6 years was 0.07 in 2009, while its lowest value was 0.04 in 2005. Listed in Nursing journals academics in Saudi Arabia have been urged in an open letter signed by 18 Nobel Prize winners to condemn the public flogging of blogger Raif Badawi. Based on List of Nursing journals King Saud University continues to host a number of Nobel laureates as part of the University’s program to enhance scientific research and build international collaboration.