Cinema and Architecture with Principle of Social Sustainable
Received Date: Oct 26, 2013 / Accepted Date: Nov 20, 2013 / Published Date: Dec 05, 2013
This article will discuss about analyzes the new topic of sustainable architecture and different perceptions of the experts on the concept of “sustainable architecture”. Today, the word sustainability widely has been discussing in order to provide solutions to react the needs of the nowadays without the peril of resources for future generations and followed that, by application of sustainability in architecture, the discussion of sustainable architecture begins. Sustainable architecture is an approach to the design of an architecture that can bring social stability. Today, community areas, most of the development and sustainability of urban areas is considered. In this article, we believe that interaction between architecture and cinema are two integral elements of sustainability principles of the social dimension that consist: equity and social identity, aesthetic and comfort, and other similar problems are pointed out and provide appropriate solutions to increase social stability, to achieve the space that is part of the collective memory in the mind of viewer and it is affecting the five senses, include: to see, hear, think, and so the opportunity to reflect on her life before and after entrance again to everyday life. How long in time and create hierarchy to reach the outside and the inside spaces, increasing comfort and enhancing public safety and social stability, flexibility and lighting in terms of space and design principles of sustainable architecture, and in details, social sustainable will be discuss topic of this article.
Keywords: Social stability; Seadability; Sustainable design; Cinema
The energy issues, is now one of the sensitive and strategic issues in the countries across the world. Indiscriminate use of fossil fuels, decrease groundwater resources and environmental pollution will increase. Today, architecture discussions are not only energy, but also respect for the land, air and natural resources and transfer them to posterity. Today, the word sustainability is widely used to describe a world in which both human and natural systems will continue to distant future. “Sustainable development” means providing solutions in mortal patterns of physical, social and economic problems that can prevent from events such as the destruction of natural resources, destruction of biological systems (ECOSYSTEM), global pollution, climate change, population skyrocketing, injustice and low quality of life .
Debate about cinema is an integral member of the topics of architecture as a place for leisure and cultural exchange and where memories are not transient and eternal movements and sounds. Perhaps one of the conditions necessary for the emergence of a cinema is relatively sophisticated understanding of the world, there are possibility of an objective and impartial point of view of human problems, and two conditions that are important to the aesthetic sense, who can exchange the cinematic elements to transcendent experience, and a society that is able to accept the cinema as a function of transfer and particular, because that cinema education, spiritual guidance and comfort in trying to give his audience. To do this, we are requiring construction that possible this activity, so combining these factors together and achieve to plan for a series of cinema and cultural attractions in the longer horizon, needs to be held accountable the audience needs and the environment.
Despite the emergence and development of various forms of communications and entertainment industries over the past century, cinema production and the number of theaters has been steadily increasing in the world and estimates based on surveys and specialized centers, this trend will continue. The average growth in the next five years, both production and display will be more than thirty percent. Today, in many countries, buildings and collections of cinemas as an integral part of urban fabric is considered . So perhaps the space that relationship between the architecture and cinema as provided the character and identity and a sense of mental and ... in the movie space and following by that, cinema space will makes agent causative social stability in the society.
Cinema in Iran as a center of mass, plays a role in order expression of cultural and entertainment issues, can be seen as a contributing factor in this regard. A person in cinema environment achieve Properties of a social environment rather than any other social media, the possibility of educate on the cinema is more, so for the operating cinema can be used in most existing, the content must be controlled and placed at a higher level, for this purpose, share and track equipment and technical areas of sustainability principles to achieve sustainable development, should maximize their efforts to create a new style of socio-cultural environment With modern methods of architectural and utilizing the techniques of modern design by using of global patterns, But the Iranian Islamic Space.
Complexity and multidimensional nature of discussions between architecture and cinema, require special research methods, and therefore the researcher must develop design methods for this deal cinema is very interesting phenomenon and very impressive, and this feature set the focuses on native cultures and arts, politics and economics in the world. On the other hand, cinema tools with techniques and technologies are diverse and using them require the skills of academic and professional disciplines and branches of different technical and industrial ideal of sustainability is environmental sustainability which has three basic interacting with each other and they are include ecological sustainability, social sustainability and economic sustainability and themselves have a subsets .
Social Sustainability as one of the triangle’s sides sustainability, set the balance in the Stability of communities and environment. Clearly, social justice is the most important issue in achieving social sustainability. Social sustainability is a quality concept, that is consist of the quality components. Components that are include low quality indicators, can be point to the social participation, accountability, skills, and engage. Social sustainability is one of the fundamental stability that has been less attention in evaluate of mechanism and stability in international level and at the local level.
True sustainability is not possible without considering the social dimensions of sustainable development . According to the definitions that mentioned, the main problem is expressed as follows: reach the space that can provide promotion of human intellectual constructs in the field of art and provide suitable filed for modern technology and artistic creativity, so that, that is consistent with sustainable design.
Attention to this requires in Iran, has importance according to the cultural heritage and constant contact with the west, some people ignore the cultural background of the country , and they fascinated the way of west life, another group have known the some aspects of industrial civilization as sign of no interest and maintaining Iranian tradition. Developments in Economic and social in Iran, the community needs to be based on the principles of cultural expression, and can also be effective in the lives of Iranians, especially young people, in an industrial society, the main purpose is to create an ideal of human character that should educate a person in the fields on the physical and social, and spiritual and also need a culture that is based upon a national culture. Restore the original values of Iranian culture and its compliance with the conditions of modern life and enjoy the trappings of a global culture and also to create a space that is the origin of that. According to what has been mentioned in the last line, the necessity of a goal and general ideology is essential for all people, especially young people that can attract all of them. It aims to nurture the physical, social, spiritual, and it needs a cultural and social policy, plan and special design.
In variety science uses from different ways to study, to recognize the subject. The research method used in this paper is library and field observations and review of the existing samples which is designed according to sustainable development. It should be noted that the concept of sustainability is still relatively new, Understanding the meaning of social sustainability and cultural of how to use it is still taking shape and many questions have been raised about it, such as:
• What is sustainability and its criteria for cultural entertainment complexes such as cinema?
• Can transfer these general concepts into operational guidelines and mechanisms for use in urban development projects like the cinema?
• And finally whether the versatile design can increase the level of cinema culture entertainment center?
To achieve good model should be able to understand the basic concepts.
Sustainable word means firm, steadfast, eternal, constant, remaining constant, strong and straight, and in English with words like:
• Sustain means to protect, to keep alive and continue to survive.
• Sustenance sense of life stability, power and strength to its.
• Sustainable (adjective describing something that is supported) means for comfort, strength, or provide sustenance to keep going longer or continuing.
It can be said that the sustainable is the way of development that satisfy our present requirements, without using the ability of future generations to satisfy their needs. In this definition, the dynamics of this approach and its interpretation in terms of the conditions of development are emphasized. Therefore, a stable and sustainable development cannot be understood without the interaction and coordination; but the process is change in which the exploitation of resources, direction of investments, the orientation of technological and institutional change in the law dealing with the current situation and needs. In fact, sustainable development, cause, we have created a dream society, supra society and making it a reality for future generations .
Application of sustainability concepts in architecture will be presented the new discussion that called sustainable architecture, or architecture, or ecological architecture, or green architecture or environmental architecture that all have the same meaning, and are compatible with environment. Sustainable means that literally is flattened stability and tolerable. As Tadao Ando says “I’ll build buildings that are sustainable in nature.” In other words, the task of sustainable architecture is constructing buildings that are tolerated in nature; In addition, it will preservation the identity and object matching with the layers of mental images of historical and future. So the main issue of sustainable architecture is how it can be achieved consistently to the development without nature, without human, without inequality, injustice, and for all human generations. These new approaches in urban planning and development policies are also essential .
In the 1990s, a very large list of indicators of sustainable development was provided in conjunction with the stability by more than 500 indicators. When a list of indicators used to assess the sustainability of national and international scale, it will be used. But in the local scale, due to the limitations of statistical and accurate information we have to use smaller number of indicators. Some of groups, known sustainable development as a framework for the development process and supposed it to change from considerations quantity to quality and Some other scholars also viewed as a measure of sustainable development by that it will be success in achieving environmental and developmental test and evaluation. The most important purpose is the same compliance with the terms of the strength of a human ecosystem (cinema complex), which is referred to as social sustainability. Social sustainability can be mentioned as a good surface of a healthy lifestyle with proper utilization of natural. Planning and developing effective programs based on facts between different regions is an essential step in creating social justice. Because of the lack of appropriate programs with resources and existing conditions in the analysis and find rooting are not very reliable.
Other definitions of sustainable development are presents that some of them are more general and others are shorter.
1. Environmental sustainability
Ecosystem integrity/capacity/Environmental Studies
2. Stable social
Cultural identity/state/Facilities and Access/stable/equity Stable social
3. Sustainable economic
Principles of sustainable design
Understanding place: Sustainable design is recognition of the place. Because if we have sensitive to the place subtle problems, we can live on that without destroy. Recognition of the place such the light direction increased the good design of the building and protects the environment and access to public transport will be easy.
Relationship with nature: In design of site, what in the city or in the environment, designed in harmony with nature, it contains returning to environmental life, Impact and designed to help us keep the natural environment.
Understanding of natural processes: In nature there is no waste. Natural systems are closed cycles. By working with living processes, we should respect to needs of species and with structure of natural cycles and visible processors, to give back designs to the life.
Open design processes to create a branch: Sustainable design will be listening to every useful sound. Working with systems administration, engineering and etc occurs early in the design as well as designers listen to the voices of local communities and consumers.
Understanding people: Sustainable design is a wide range of cultures, generations, races and religions of people and society. The supply of comfort and quality in the biosphere will be the conclusion of all the components listed in the Sustainable Design Process. Also, knowledge and appreciation of the members of the association will promote the sustainable to social stability.
Design based on the Social Stability: Design based on social stability cause following cases:
Social sustainability is based on the following design:
- Transport and mobility options, will extend the movement, particularly for non-drivers.
- Social cohesion will preserve the unique cultural industries (historic sites, neighborhoods, businesses, etc.)
- Increases health and physical operations.
Another social factor is related to the use of knowledge and residents experience and create and support of various and new designs, means the concepts and environmental issues used as inspiration forms.
Three principles: strength, beauty and usefulness of the principles is Vitruvius, after many years we gained a deeper meaning from them. Second principle is the beauty, that is based on the architecture if it cannot heal the psyche and not compatible with the spirit, it cannot be sustained in the mind, and immortal. One of the reasons for the persistence of some buildings on the Iranian architecture including Sheikh Lotf Allah Mosque is the same. The aesthetic of the buildings until nowadays would be consolation that observers , that they experience their space, this principle in the design of sustainable supply the welfare of human psychological, during that sustainable design can be more connected with nature and also human beings together to ensure a closer relationship, because of the dangers of modern and industrialized societies, is separating people from one another, that endangers the mental comfort.
Sustainable communities requirement in terms of space, are:
• Gathering place and meeting for different age groups are security, different, landscaping, services and operation-oriented of open spaces and surrounding buildings.
The design guidelines are divided as follows:
a. Identification of an organic system that are described in the open space with different functions, but with central unit.
b. Local functions and important services of municipal to increase the attractiveness of the place.
c. Decontamination of traffic that is threatening to people and buildings.
e. Create a special place for children and elderly people, considering the requirements of different groups age.
f. Create green space.
g. Improve accessibility
h. Activation of the economic process
Legibility and sense of security
The Legibility means, can easily identify parts of the city and connect them in mind in the form of interlocking. Having a clear understanding and identify of a environment is essential characteristics of all animated beings. However, many factors such as the emotional colors, shapes, movement and diversity light brings to see, smell, sound and touch to help this identify.
One factor that has enabled a person to find a way is image that he has of his environment; it is clear that having a clear picture of the environment that enables a person to easily move from one place to another. The scene is bright, vivid, can create accurate picture of a constant, as well as has been their social role. Complex symbols and common memories and collective human communication can provide, “raw material” that make natural landscape in mind and make underlying basic that many Bedouin tribes are based on their socially important myths. Good image of the environment gives the person a sense of security. Indeed, the environment that is clear in mind, creates a sense of security and also increases the depth of human experiences. And this feel is security which itself becomes a basis for supply of social stability.
Affecting factors in the design of cinema
Cinema and architecture are close to each other in the nature of movement, and also, in terms of time, space, rhythm, color, light, texture, motion and continuity. Cinema, combining elements such as color, lighting, perspective and the scene, editing and sound in order to create a strong relationship with your audience and to facilitate intellectual journey of the film into the space he makes spaces, however the origin architecture is spaces. In the cinema , film maker provides the mental space and in the architecture, the architecture will object of the space and the film makers don’t need to the expressions of their intended meanings of architectural space and architecture for the development of virtual reality and visualization space is needed Cinema.
Lighting: Buildings that are constructed, in order to establish the theater, whether from within or outside, should be attractive and impressive to pay for it. The exterior of the building should be carrying the message “This place is something special going on.” According to traditional theaters and present tents were bright and full of excitement and with a view to be seen and heard their fanfare, or scenes arrival of the guests, exciting discussion before present and invasion them to fit place. Theatre is a place to meet these expectations. So its lighting design must be evokes all of the scenes.
Lobby: Lobby is the first place, which is directly expressing the difference experience theater from life events outside world. Historically, the film places have been the powerful environment and exciting the imagination more than the other buildings. They have their place in life and lighting is the means to reach this goal. In individual design of the street to the hall, designer should answer to visual needs and match them, according that it takes long time to get into the space of the human visual system with high-intensity light accommodate its dim to space, finding a seat for a person in a dark theater room into a sunny afternoon, it is difficult. The entrance hall and lobby are tools that give the spectator enough time for eyes complying. In theaters that have many halls and all are radiating from a central lobby, navigation and circulation are seen as proper challenging that is only through lighting and its ability in spatial resolution can be a powerful tool. Another point that should be considered in theater lighting, that is, theater is to maintain standards in terms of size and ventilation and circulation is greater and bigger than human needs. Thus, in general, this lighting cordiality to the space and showcases scale and architectural style.
Optimal capacity in urban locations
Television, new appliances of film and have created a new metrics to determine the optimal capacity theaters (in terms of number of seats). Television in the big hall of the need for film locations with high capacity (up to 1500 positions) is reduced in urban locations of course this will vary with the conditions in cinema locations. And somewhat is similar to other performing arts category that success of any product depends on the quality or unusual characters. Larger screen technology, film wide (70 mm) and a new light (Cinemascope), this creates the possibility that viewers are able to watch videos simultaneously. The physiological effects inspire a “master image” or the feeling of being on stage to the viewer.
Since imagery is used by two distinct ways. The first method is a common type of theater that provides the public’s taste in films. Equipment need for 600 -1500 people. Larger units must have, favorable conditions and a sufficient population and adequate parking. The second type is created from theater art, this small room, almost in all of cities and towns, are created who have special viewer.
Town and movie locations
Town and public locations apart from the space objects that occupy the area and the situation due to the components and characteristics, relationships, needs, interests and ethics, album memories that will ferry in society, the relationship of mutual influence and are influenced by it. The public space as a person or a work of art is undoubtedly historical identity. Pathology urban spaces are between anthropology, architecture, and cinema. Cinema is a language, the language that offers of the messages in a clear presentation. Help film and video can be used as a medium of expression in critical urban design. Today the theater as a social institution in which human relations are shaped, cinema is Constructive and developmental of the general culture of the city. Unfortunately, in Iran cinema, we are not dealing with urban areas and normally there is no place in Iranian cinema but in many countries, the filmmakers taking advantage of the intellectual sociologists in communicate better with its audience and make place in their movies that should be considered in our country. It looks like the survey between the people and place are one of the most important things that perhaps many of the problems origin from architecture and film. Cinema as an effective culture tool in the management of urban by architecture and the nature of the space, the collective memory of the city will lead to the public. The managers of urban areas despite the lack of historical identity debate, Lack of public space and urban memories about the location and identity of cities should take serious steps and Iranian urban spaces should have character and reflect a sense of Iranian identity and the identity of its look. In general we can say that the film promotes social identity. Accordingly, the city is a physical reality that is composed of spaces and social relations that through man sees spaces and feels about itself and to acquire a distinct identity for him.
So these buildings are usually at the heart of the city and take shape for the promotion of cultural purposes, or for the restoration of the old town or the restaurants. For design an amphitheater, urban planning and it’s located in a space that is used by the people, is important. This is what the space adjacent to the amphitheater and whether the access is allowed for all groups and different people and interested, is important. If amphitheater to be built on the site in the countryside, in design of it, should pay attention to the future, neighborhood location, the facilities and access to the site. But it should also be considered that general goal of social sustainability is movement the community from dependence on industries that emit large amounts of pollution and chemicals to prevent further damage to some neighborhoods.
Design of large-scale infrastructure (such as the design of a complex, cinematic entertainment) is also important. For example through the provision of public transport vehicles equipped and efficiently to achieve a desired location for low-income people and communities to utilize them.
According to issues that were raised, Sustainability is interaction between a set of ecological, economic and social conditions in the community , in fact the first step to achieving optimum conditions of each society’s status, implies the problems of society. This is importance in resort complex theatrical culture in Iran, because in the fourth development plan, increasing the proportion of cultural goods, art and cinema has been emphasized in household spending basket, on this basis, the government is required during develop of programs predict necessary to enhance the contribution of cultural goods ,art and Cinema in the consumption basket of households and different walks of life, especially government workers, youth, women and workers. The community and household needs to the spaces that can separated them from their everyday lives into the social and cultural environment is essential.
Because it represents a sustainable design that is comparable to a traditional design and style of the building is more than one style, means it has no particular style. And what is known in architecture of Iran as the principle of sustainable is composed with introversion, using local materials, the apparent link with nature. According to what was told to increase the comfort and safety means increasing social stability, size and quality of the original spaces and quality and quantity of service spaces, flexibility and lighting inside and outside spaces, interior quality and divide them into the public and private domain, all the factors are affecting social stability. Amazing in the lobbies way and not being separated base on broadcasting place, are factors of unsustainability or affray. So the blind can give a clear image to the viewer. Proper ventilation and skylight in required areas of the buildings and adequate lighting in the inner part and observe the transition from the dark to the dark or dark space to the light space, hierarchies to achieve proper lighting on traffic routes Particularly the division between the lobby and output lobby video playback are impressive in design. Considering that one of the biggest factors of growth talents and healthy adolescents and young talents, the hobbies and recreation areas are different for different age groups and with adding new centers as an original supplement can design the complex organizations where places are social , places that are movements and perceptions such as game spaces, image galleries, plays, local cultural products, coffee and craft sales and other closed spaces that all for every stratum of society are important, in the formation of collective memories and their knowledge of a range of culturally specific can be effective.
Since social identity is a factor of social stability. Social identity of people and social identity of any designed buildings and social class of people are three important factors and interrelated. framework of architectural , size and quality of entrance spaces and criteria and extent of the input spaces, Separate lobby entrance and exit of the hall, side rooms, good circulation, entrance criteria, identity of framework, scare the outer and façade and other similar cases, gives the viewer a sense of comfort emotional and security. So the interior and exterior architectural cinematic set based on the idea of creating meaning and spiritual concepts and in creating a comfortable and fun, and fulfilling the wishes of the people are essential. With a new view to that, we can get if we known an audience as art audience so we should presentation his obsessed with subject before or after the film. Our cinema is transformed into space, that carrier information and no formal protection. This will lead us into that direction, set mentally prepared to do battle with movie after the departure hall. We will take a longer time and offer hierarchy to reach into and out spaces and every day conflicts. This approach makes, we proposed the most of the events before starting and after the end of the movie and leave the cinema. Architects who are proficient in the use of space to create suitable applications and aware about the design principles of traditional and Iranian architecture can easily design in the wonderful world of architectural and uses a psychological sense and identity in their own spaces.
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Citation: Lotfaliadeh M, Nahidiazer F, Kazemi M (2013) Cinema and Architecture with Principle of Social Sustainable. J Archit Eng Tech 2: 114. Doi: 10.4172/2168-9717.1000114
Copyright: ©2013 Lotfaliadeh M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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