Diversity of Pond Ecosystem and Its Components: A Mini-review
Rajesh T1* and Preethi J2
1Department of Environmental sciences, Osmania University, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
2Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Rajesh T
Department of Environmental sciences
Osmania University, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
Tel: +7 (499) 976-0480
Received Date: March 03, 2017; Accepted Date: March 24, 2017; Published Date: March 27, 2017
Citation: Rajesh T, Preethi J (2017) Diversity of Pond Ecosystem and Its Components: A Mini-review. J Ecosyst Ecography 7: 228. doi:
Copyright: © 2017 Rajesh, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted
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Basic unit in ecology formed from the cohabitation of plants, animals is known as Pond ecosystem, Ponds shallow water bodies barely reach 12 to 15 feet in-depth. A Pond biological community is a freshwater biological community in which groups of living beings depend on each other and the water environment for their supplements and survival. Ponds are a vital part of the hydrological framework; and perform various parts in the biosphere. Thinks about on lake environments are, in any case, regularly dismissed, likely, because of their little size.
Community; Environment; Ecology; Microphytes;
Ponds are among the maximum various freshwater habitats and
were recently determined to help extra species, in addition to extra
unusual, rare, and threatened species in comparison to lakes, rivers,
and streams [1-10]. The conservation of ponds represents a costpowerful
manner of maintaining or improving biodiversity, due to the
everyday small length of pond catchment regions.
A Pond may indicate blends of three diverse nourishment web
parts: one based upon cyanobacteria and green growth, another based
upon expansive plants, and another based upon rotted plants [11-15].
Pond biological systems have both abiotic and biotic segments.
• light, water and temperature are the environmental factors
• oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen are the inorganic components
• carbohydrates, Proteins, amino acids nucleic acids and fats are organic components
An abiotic component includes producers, consumers and
In which producers are aquatic green plants, consumers are
heterotrophic organisms and decomposers includes heterotrophic
These are the aquatic green plants which may be of two types:
Microphytes are also known as phytoplanktons, which are
microscopic in nature. For example Spirogyra and Volvox.
Macrophytes are large in nature.
A submerged plant, floating plants and immerged plants comes
The heterotrophic organisms are known as consumers in which
primary, secondary and territory consumers [26-35].
These are herbivores animals completely depending upon auto
trophic organisms [36-45].
These are Carnivores depends upon animals.
Example: Insects and Fogs etc.
These fed upon either plants or animals, these are called as second
grade of carnivores.
Decomposer includes all heterotrophic microorganisms like fundi,
These produce food materials by breaking down the organic
complex food material to simple inorganic compounds [51-70].
According to pond stratification based on qualities like depth of
water, penetration of light and both animals and plant vegetation
decomposers are of three zones [71-96].
They are Littoral zone, Limnetic Zone, Profundal Zone.
Uses of Pond Ecosystem
• These can be used as important hotspot for biodiversity.
• Ponds are also wonderful for our terrestrial wildlife.
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