Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messin, Italy
Received Date: April 26, 2017; Accepted Date: April 28, 2017; Published Date: April 30, 2017
Citation: Cuzzocrea F, Quattropani MC (2017) Editor Note: Epidemiology Open Access (Volume 7 Issue 1). Epidemiology (Sunnyvale) 7:e122. doi:10.4172/2161-1165.1000e122
Copyright: © 2017 Cuzzocrea F, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Spreading of a disease with uncontrolled progress with mass mortality and damage is termed as ‘epidemic’ situation of that particular disease. From the ancient time of human history several incidences of epidemic outbreak has been occurred in different era. An amulet of Akkadian Erra Epic (800-612 BC) has been identified, where the incident of plague was inscribed with a quotation. Moreover, the teeth samples from seven ‘Bronze age’ (3000 BC) human have been found positive with the plasmid of Yersinia pestis- the bacterial pathogen responsible for Plague, which is believed to be the earliest evidence of ‘epidemiological incidence’ in the world . Studies in epidemiological aspect of diseases are still relevant today as it helps to search the determinants of the issue and assists to find out the cause or influence of disease and other health-related events. The journal ‘Epidemiology: Open Access’ Volume 7, Issue 1, focussed varied topics of and discussion of research findings in this field. The authors in this issue have investigated the reason for the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in female population of Saudi; reported main consequences and factors associated with low back pain in healthcare workers; evaluated the role of probable factors leading to the genesis of Alzheimer’s disease; assessed the relation between socio-economic status and nutritional status and investigated the perceptions of young females. The study further assessed the factors associated with utilization of SRH services in Ambo town.
The prevalence of thyroid disorder is increasing in all parts of the world. Ethnicity, geographical locations, age, sex and iodine-intake are considered as main reasons for the occurrence of thyroid disorders. Hasanato et al. , meticulously investigated the reasons for the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in female population of Saudi. To assess this, they conducted cross sectional studies involving 199 female Saudi adults, visiting the King Khalid University Hospitals, Riyadh. This survey reported that lack of studies on the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction as main reason that resulted in high incidence of thyroid disorders among older females of Saudi. In addition vitamin D deficiency is also reported in majority of females, even though it is not related to thyroid disorder.
Low back pain is a common problem face by almost all individuals at some point. This pain actually starts below the ribcage called the lumbar region. Abdulmujeeb et al. , studied the main consequences and factors associated with low back pain in healthcare workers. A cross sectional study was conducted and collected data was subjected for Epi info soft-ware and statistical data was analysed by using SPSS. This survey asseverated that, occupation designation and daily time spent to carry out these occupations are the medical and socioprofessional consequences of low back pain in healthcare workers.
Alzheimer’s and dementia are neurodegenerative disorder and millions of individuals are affected all over the globe, Pei , tried to evaluate the role of probable factors leading to the genesis of Alzheimer’s disease by conducting cross sectional study. This type of studies would also help to segregate the individual risk factors/ predisposing factors. This information regarding identification of predisposing risk factors will minimize the prevalence and complications that are associated with neurodegenerative disorders.
The standard of the life depends upon the socio economic status of people. The educational opportunities and nutritional intakes all depends up the family income. De , conducted a study to assess the relation between socio-economic status and nutritional status. This study reported nearly 42.3% children of illiterate mothers and 20% children of literate mothers are facing malnutrition problem. Thus, socio-economic status affects living standard and nutritional intakes and indirectly it also affects the adolescent growth too.
Till date, it is still leftover as public health challenge to encourage sexual and reproductive health and rights of young people. As young people are facing many sexual and reproductive health (SRH) problems such as unwanted pregnancy, which leads to unsafe abortion, sexually transmitted disease like HIV/aids. Bayissa , meticulously investigated the perceptions of young females and assessed the factors associated with utilization of SRH services in Ambo town. To check this, qualitative and quantitative study were employed to collect the information. The information deduced that, only 26% of study participants had utilized sexual and reproductive health services. The three main reasons for not utilizing the services include; fear of parents, feeling ashamed when they get any person they know, and lack of confidentiality on health providers. This article highlighted the need of intense commitment of government and stakeholder’s involvement in sexual and reproductive health education, so as to meet the uptake of sexual and reproductive health services and at the same time to improve the utilization of services and awareness of young females.
Increase in risk of neoplastic diseases in the world’s population has been increasing. The world’s most frequently occurring disease is lung cancer, according to epidemiological research the basic factors that are responsible for occurrence of cancer include the environmental factors that results from human behaviour. Lewandowska et al. , portrayed the risk factors of a neoplastic disease occurrence among patients, who was diagnosed oncological disease. This study reported that breast cancer is frequently diagnosed tumor in women, whereas, prostate cancer is more in men. Smoking is the main cause for the occurrence of cancer in men. Over weight and obesity plays significant role to influence cancer in women and developing men.
One of the public health problem faced by developing countries like Bangladesh, is low birth weight. The status of the child birth depends upon the maternal knowledge, and it is very little known in rural places. Chowdhury et al. , conducted a study to assess the maternal knowledge on the risk factors of LBW babies among the selected women of the Vagna and Shubdda in Kearaigonj. Lack of knowledge about the mother’s risk factors, complications and prevention of LBW resulted in high prevalence of LBW babies. To reduce this scenario, it is possible only through health policy maker’s intervention of raising the awareness about the risk factors of LBW and also providing much reproductive education to the problem of LBW.