Dersleri yüzünden oldukça stresli bir ruh haline sikiş hikayeleri bürünüp özel matematik dersinden önce rahatlayabilmek için amatör pornolar kendisini yatak odasına kapatan genç adam telefonundan porno resimleri açtığı porno filmini keyifle seyir ederek yatağını mobil porno okşar ruh dinlendirici olduğunu iddia ettikleri özel sex resim bir masaj salonunda çalışan genç masör hem sağlık hem de huzur sikiş için gelip masaj yaptıracak olan kadını gördüğünde porn nutku tutulur tüm gün boyu seksi lezbiyenleri sikiş dikizleyerek onları en savunmasız anlarında fotoğraflayan azılı erkek lavaboya geçerek fotoğraflara bakıp koca yarağını keyifle okşamaya başlar
Evaluation of Anti Inflammatory Activity of Hydroalcoholic Leaves Extracts of Polyherbal Combination of Vitex vegundo and Murraya koenigii against Carrageenan Induced Paw Edema in Rats
ISSN: 2329-9053
Journal of Molecular Pharmaceutics & Organic Process Research
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
  • Research Article   
  • J Mol Pharm Org Process Res 2014, Vol 2(3): 119
  • DOI: 10.4172/2329-9053.1000119

Evaluation of Anti Inflammatory Activity of Hydroalcoholic Leaves Extracts of Polyherbal Combination of Vitex vegundo and Murraya koenigii against Carrageenan Induced Paw Edema in Rats

Saurabh Patel*, Hemant Rathod, Mahaveer Kabra and Mukesh Vaishnav
Department of Pharmaceutics, Kota College of Pharmacy, Kota-324009, Rajasthan, India
*Corresponding Author: Saurabh Patel, Department of Pharmaceutics, Kota College of Pharmacy, B-52 Vitthalnagar Soc, S. V. Patel Road, Bilimora-396321, D: Navsari, Ta: Gandevi (Gujarat), India, Tel: 09510192993, Email: [email protected]

Received: 08-Aug-2014 / Accepted Date: 28-Sep-2014 / Published Date: 06-Oct-2014 DOI: 10.4172/2329-9053.1000119 /


Vitex negundo and Murraya koenigii are popular Indian herbs which are used for various clinical disorders. The basic literature survey exposed that Vitex negundo hasantioxidant, antiulcer and anti-nociceptive activity and Murraya koenigii possessing anthelmintic, analgesic, cooling activity, but not many scientific studies have been carried out to reveal and collaborate the anti-inflammatory activity of Vitex negundo and Murraya koenigii leaves. All animals were divided into five groups, six rats in each group. Group I was treated as toxicant control to observe swelling, group II was treated with Aspirin (10 mg/kg, p.o), group III and IV were treated with hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Vitex negundo and Murraya koenigii at two doses (100 mg/kg, p.o.) respectively. The anti-inflammatory activity was studied by using carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. Present study showed that hydroalcoholic leaves extract of Vitex negundo and Murraya koenigii significantly reduce paw edema when compared with group I (Toxicant control) rats and the result were dose dependent. The toxicity study also revealed its safeness, thus the plant can be hypothesized it is nontoxic. All data were expressed as mean+SEM and were statistically analysed one way ANOVA. It is concluded that hydroalcoholic leaves extract of Vitex negundo and Murraya koenigii can offer protection against carrageenan induced paw edema in rats.

Keywords: Murraya koenigii; Vitex negundo; Anti-inflammatory; Hydroalcoholic extract


After decades of serious obsession with the modern medicinal system, people have started looking at the ancient healing systems like Ayurveda, Siddha and Unnani. This is because of the adverse effects associated with synthetic drugs. Herbal drugs play an important role in health care programs especially in developing countries. Ancient Indian literature incorporates a remarkably broad definition of medicinal plants and considers ‘all plant parts to be potential sources of medicinal substances’ [1].

Murraya koenigii is known as ‘curry patta’ in Hindi and widely used as spice and condiment in India and other tropical countries. It belongs to the family Rutaceae [2]. Traditionally, the plant is used as a stimulant, stomachic, febrifuge, analgesic and for the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery; insect bites and also used to allay heat of body [3]. Previous Phytochemical investigations on this plant revealed Analgesic, Wound Healing, Antidiarrhoeal, Anthelmintic, Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiulcer, Antiobesity, and Hypoglycaemic activities.

Vitex Negundo Linn. commonly known as Negundo, has been used by several traditionalsystems of medicine including Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha for different ailments. It belongs to the family Verbanaceae [4]. Vitex Negundo is commonly known as five leaved chaste tree (English), Nirgudi (Marathi), Nirgundi (Hindi), Indrani (Sanskrit) [5]. This plant has reported the Antipyretic, Antidiabetic, Laxative, Anticonvulsant, Antitumor, Wound Healing and Anthelmintic activities. It is also useful in leucoderma and blood disorders. An infusion of the toasted leaves in used to stop vomiting [6]. Crushed leaves are applied externally cures skin eruption and to relieves burn. The pastes of leaves are applied externally to treat the bites of poisonous animals [7]. Steam distillate of the leaves can be used as stomachic, purgative, febrifuge and antiemetic [8]. Leaves are applied externally to bruises and eruption [9].

The present study therefore, intends to investigate the antiinflammatory activity of hydroalcoholic leaves extracts of polyhedral formulation of Murraya Koenigii and Vitex Negundo on carrageenan induced inflammation in experimental animal models, in order to confirm the medicinal properties of the plant.

Materials And Methods

Plant material

The leaves of Murraya Koenigii and Vitex Negundo were collected from local area of Kota, Rajasthan.The leaves of both the plants were authenticated by Department of Botany, Government College, Kota, Rajasthan.

Preparation of extract

Extracts were prepared in order to study their anti-inflammatory activity. The leaves were dried under shade and were ground to form the smooth powder. The powdered leaves of Murraya Koenigii and Vitex Negundo (80 gm each) were macerated with ethanol (50% v/v) as solvent for 7 days and after every 24 hours; the mixtures were stirred with a sterile glass rod. The extract was filtered by whatmann filter paper no.1 to obtain the filtrate. The filtrates were kept on water bath to obtain the crude extract [10].


Albino rates of either sex weighing 180-200 gm were procured from Animal House of Kota College of Pharmacy, Kota, Rajasthan, and were selected in the study. The animals were kept in polypropylene cages and fed with standard pellet diet and water ad libitum, maintained at an ambient temperature of 25°C ± 2°C and relative humidity 50% ± 15%. The study was conducted after approval of Institutional Animal Ethical Committee.

Acute Toxicity Study

Albino mice of either sex, weighing 20-25 gm were used to determine the lethal dose. The animals were fasted overnight prior to the actual experimental procedure. Five groups of 6 mice each were administered with aqueous extract at 1.0-5.0 gm/kg p.o respectively. Animals were observed for clinical signs and mortality, continuously for first 2 h. and then for every forth hour. The no. of dead or survived mice after 24 h. was recorded and LD50 was calculated according to Miller and Tainter. The parameter observed and recorded was changed in behavioral, neurologic and autonomic responses. 1/10th of lethal dose was taken as a screening dose [11].

Anti Inflammatory Activity

The activity was evaluated by using carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. Albino rats of either sex were divided into five groups of six animals each. Group I served as toxicant control, received carrageenan (0.1ml of 1% solution), group II served as positive control, received Aspirin (10 mg/kg, p.o), group III and IV were treated with hydroalcoholic leaves extract of Vitex Negundo and Murraya Koenigii (100 mg / kg, p.o.) respectively, and group V were treated with hydroalcoholic leaves extract of combination of Vitex Negundo: Murraya Koenigii (100 mg/kg : 100 mg/kg, p.o). All the respective grouped animals were injected with carrageenan (0.1ml, 1% solution).


Thirty minutes after drug or test compound (extracts) administration, 0.1 ml of 1% carrageenan in distilled water was injected into the sub plantar region of right hind paws of all groups. A mark was put on the leg at the malleolus to facilitate uniform dipping at subsequent readings. The paw edema volume was measured with the help of plethysmometer at zero hour. (Immediately after injecting carrageenan). The same procedure was repeated at 30 min 1, 2, 3 h. The difference between 1 h and subsequent hours reading was taken as actual edema volume [12].


Statistical analysis

The results were expressed as mean ± S.E.M. and statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test. P<0.05 was regarded as statistically significant (Table 1).

Group No. Drug Treatment 1 h 2 h 3 h Average Reading % Inhibition
Mean ± S.D Mean ± S.D Mean ± S.D
I Toxicant control
(Carrageenan 0.1ml, 1% sol)
2.60 ± 0.11 3.40 ± 0.09 3.35 ± 0.13 3.12 ……
II Carrageenan + Aspirin
(10 mg/kg, p.o.)
2.49 ± 0.13 2.31 ± 0.09 2.22 ± 0.16 2.34 25
III Carrageenan + Vitex Negundo
(100 mg/kg, p.o.)
2.51 ± 0.11 2.43 ± 0.11 2.34 ± 0.12 2.43 22
IV Carrageenan + Murraya Koenigii
(100 mg/kg, p.o.)

2.56 ± 0.09

2.70 ± 0.12

2.55 ± 0.17


V Carrageenan + Vitex Negundo: Murraya Koenigii
(100:100 mg/kg, p.o.)

2.53 ± 0.09

2.30 ± 0.19

2.27 ± 0.13



Table 1: Observation Table.

It was observed that Hydroalcoholic leaves extract of polyherbal combination of Vitex Negundo and Murraya Koenigii (100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced paw edema as compared to individual leaves extract.


Carrageenan-induced paw edema being an in-vivo investigational model for acute inflammation which been extensively used to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of new investigational agents. Due to increase in frequency of intake of synthetic drug and their side effect, there is need to focus on herbal drug having fewer side effect. The result obtained in this study suggested that hydroalcoholic leaves extract of Vitex Negundo and Murraya Koenigii possess significant anti-inflammatory activity against Carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. The carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats is believed to be biphasic. The first phase is due to the release of histamine or serotonin, and the second phase is caused by the release of bradykinin, protease, prostaglandin, and lysosome. Therefore, it can be assumed that the inhibitory effect of the polyherbal extract of Vitex Negundo and Murraya Koenigii on carrageenan-induced inflammation could be due to the inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase, leading to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis.

The present study on extract of Vitex Negundo and Murraya Koenigii has demonstrated that this plant has significant anti-inflammatory properties, and it justifies the traditional use of this plant in the treatment of various types of pains and inflammation.


On the basis of these findings, it may be inferred that hydroalcoholic leaves extract of Vitex Negundo and Murraya Koenigii is an effective for anti inflammatory activity. This activity may be due to presence of active constituents like flavonoids, triterpenoids and alkaloids.


  1. Shankar D, Ved DK (2003) A Balanced Perspective for Management of Indian Medicinal Plants. The Indian Forester 129: 275-288
  2. Satyavati GV, Gupta AK, Tandon N (1987) Medicinal Plants of India. Indian Council of Medical Research India 2: 289-299.
  3. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD (1993) Indian Medicinal Plants. 2nd Edn, 1: 472-474.
  4. Paarakh PM, Nigella sativa L (2010) A comprehensive review. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources 4: 409-429.
  5. Khare CP (2007) Indian medicinal plants an illustrated dictionary. New York: Springer Science and Business Media, 710.
  6. Mhaskar KS, Blatter E, Caius JF, Basu K, (2000) Illustrated Indian Medicinal Plants Their Usage in Ayurveda and Unani Medicine. Shri Satguru Publication 3: 656-659.
  7. Kesari AN, Gupta RK, Watal G (2005) Hypoglycemic effects of Murraya koenigii on normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits. J Ethnopharmacol 97: 247-251.
  8. Yukari T, Hiroe K, Nordin HL, Nobuji N (2001) Antioxidative Activity of Carbazoles from Murraya koenigii Leaves. J Agri Food Chem 49: 5589-5594.
  9. Kumar VS, Sharma A, Tiwari R, Kumar S (1999) Murraya koenigii (curry leaf): A review. J of Med and Aromat Plant Sci 21: 1139-1144.
  10. Alade PI, Irobi ON (1993) Antimicrobial activities of crude leaf extracts of Acalypha wilkesiana. J Ethnopharmacol 39: 171-174.
  11. Turner RA (1965) Screening Method in Pharmacology. Academic press, New York and London 268.
  12. Vogel HG (2002) Drug Discovery and Evaluation Pharmacological Assays. Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, New York, 2nd Edn, 418.

Citation: Patel S, Rathod H, Kabra M, Vaishnav M (2014) Evaluation of Anti Inflammatory Activity of Hydroalcoholic Leaves Extracts of Polyherbal Combination of Vitex Negundo and Murraya Koenigii against Carrageenan Induced Paw Edema in Rats. J Mol Pharm Org Process Res 2: 119. Doi: 10.4172/2329-9053.1000119

Copyright: ©2014 Patel S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language

Post Your Comment Citation
Share This Article
Article Usage
  • Total views: 15006
  • [From(publication date): 12-2014 - Oct 05, 2022]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views: 10654
  • PDF downloads: 4352
Share This Article